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Healthcare personnel (HCP) were recruited to provide serum samples, which were tested for antibodies against Ebola or Lassa virus to evaluate for asymptomatic seroconversion.
From 2014 to 2016, 4 patients with Ebola virus disease (EVD) and 1 patient with Lassa fever (LF) were treated in the Serious Communicable Diseases Unit (SCDU) at Emory University Hospital. Strict infection control and clinical biosafety practices were implemented to prevent nosocomial transmission of EVD or LF to HCP.
All personnel who entered the SCDU who were required to measure their temperatures and complete a symptom questionnaire twice daily were eligible.
No employee developed symptomatic EVD or LF. EVD and LF antibody studies were performed on sera samples from 42 HCP. The 6 participants who had received investigational vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus type 3 vectored Ebola glycoprotein vaccine had high antibody titers to Ebola glycoprotein, but none had a response to Ebola nucleoprotein or VP40, or a response to LF antigens.
Patients infected with filoviruses and arenaviruses can be managed successfully without causing occupation-related symptomatic or asymptomatic infections. Meticulous attention to infection control and clinical biosafety practices by highly motivated, trained staff is critical to the safe care of patients with an infection from a special pathogen.
These lecture notes were presented by Allan N. Kaufman in his graduate plasma theory course and a follow-on special topics course (Physics 242A, B, C and Physics 250 at the University of California Berkeley). The notes follow the order of the lectures. The equations and derivations are as Kaufman presented, but the text is a reconstruction of Kaufman’s discussion and commentary. The notes were transcribed by Bruce I. Cohen in 1971 and 1972, and word processed, edited and illustrations added by Cohen in 2017 and 2018. The series of lectures is divided into four major parts: (i) collisionless Vlasov plasmas (linear theory of waves and instabilities with and without an applied magnetic field, Vlasov–Poisson and Vlasov–Maxwell systems, Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (WKBJ) eikonal theory of wave propagation); (ii) nonlinear Vlasov plasmas and miscellaneous topics (the plasma dispersion function, singular solutions of the Vlasov–Poisson system, pulse-response solutions for initial-value problems, Gardner’s stability theorem, gyroresonant effects, nonlinear waves, particle trapping in waves, quasilinear theory, nonlinear three-wave interactions); (iii) plasma collisional and discreteness phenomena (test-particle theory of dynamic friction and wave emission, classical resistivity, extension of test-particle theory to many-particle phenomena and the derivation of the Boltzmann and Lenard–Balescu equations, the Fokker–Planck collision operator, a general scattering theory, nonlinear Landau damping, radiation transport and Dupree’s theory of clumps); (iv) non-uniform plasmas (adiabatic invariance, guiding-centre drifts, hydromagnetic theory, introduction to drift-wave stability theory).
The retributive system is motivated by powerful strike-back desire (actually a general desire to pass the pain along) combined with nonconscious belief in a just world. To preserve belief in a just world, we must suppose that most people are receiving their just deserts, and that requires belief in moral responsibility. Neoliberal societies are deeply dedicated to individual moral responsibility, resulting in harsh judgments and gross inequity. The systems approach offers a promising path away from moral responsibility and toward a more just and equitable society.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
One new genus of Inocelliidae (Raphidioptera) with one new species and one undetermined specimen is described from the Eocene of North America: Paraksenocellia borealisnew genus, new species from the early Eocene (Ypresian) Okanagan Highlands shale at Driftwood Canyon, British Columbia, Canada (a forewing), and Paraksenocellia species from the middle Eocene (Lutetian) of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation, northwestern Montana, United States of America (a hind wing). These are the oldest records of the family. The new genus possesses many character states that are rare in Inocelliidae, e.g., a very long pterostigma extending to ScP in both the forewings and hind wings; the forewing subcostal space has three crossveins; the forewing and hind wing AA1 are deeply forked; the crossvein between CuA and CuP is located far distad the crossvein 1r-m. Paraksenocellia is confidently a member of the Inocelliidae, as it possesses a proximal shift of the basal crossvein 1r-m (connecting R and M) in the forewing and the loss of the basal crossvein 1r-m in the hind wing, both apomorphies of the family. It shares some character states with the Mesozoic Mesoraphidiidae, which we consider to be mostly stem-group plesiomorphies.
In this cohort of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp hospital-onset bacteremia, isolated fluoroquinolone resistance had a larger relative impact on mortality than other phenotypic resistance patterns. This finding may support stewardship efforts targeting unnecessary fluoroquinolone use and increased attention from infection prevention and control departments.
The low-frequency unsteadiness of oblique shock wave/boundary layer interactions (SBLIs) has been investigated using large-eddy simulation (LES) and high-frequency pressure measurements from experiments. Particular attention has been paid to off-centreline behaviour: the LES dataset was generated including sidewalls, and experimental pressure measurements were acquired across the entire span of the reflected shock foot. The datasets constitute the first maps of low-frequency unsteadiness in both streamwise and spanwise directions. The results reveal that significant low-frequency shock motion (with
) occurs away from the centreline, along most of the central separation shock and in the corner regions. The most powerful low-frequency unsteadiness occurs off-centre, likely due to the separation shock being strengthened by shocks arising from the swept interactions on the sidewalls. Both simulation and experimental results exhibit asymmetry about the spanwise centre. In simulations, this may be attributed to a lack of statistical convergence; however, the fact that this is also seen in experiments is indicative that some SBLIs may exhibit some inherent asymmetry across the two spanwise halves of the separation bubble. There is also significant low-frequency power in the corner separations. The relation of the unsteadiness in the corner regions to that in the centre is investigated by means of two-point correlations: a key observation is that significant correlation does not extend across the attached flow channel between the central and corner separations.
Mini-sabbaticals are formal short-term training and educational experiences away from an investigator’s home research unit. These may include rotations with other research units and externships at government research or regulatory agencies, industry and non-profit programs, and training and/or intensive educational programs. The National Institutes of Health have been encouraging training institutions to consider offering mini-sabbaticals, but given the newness of the concept, limited data are available to guide the implementation of mini-sabbatical programs. In this paper, we review the history of sabbaticals and mini-sabbaticals, report the results of surveys we performed to ascertain the use of mini-sabbaticals at Clinical and Translational Science Award hubs, and consider best practice recommendations for institutions seeking to establish formal mini-sabbatical programs.
In this article we aim at conceptual reconstruction of the historical background behind RDoC project. It incorporates some elements that have not heretofore been included in frameworks for psychopathology research. At the same time, however, RDoC – like any approach to mental illness – must grapple with longstanding challenges in addressing issues about the roles and relationships of mind, brain, and patients’ reports in considering the nature of disorder. In this respect, the historical roots of psychopathology remain as relevant as ever.
The calving of icebergs accounts for a significant fraction of the mass loss from both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Iceberg melting affects the water properties impacting sea ice formation, local circulation and biological activity. Laboratory experiments have investigated the effects of the Earth’s rotation on iceberg melting and the possible formation of Taylor columns (TCs) underneath icebergs. It is found that at high Rossby number,
, when rotation is weak compared to advection, iceberg melting is unaffected by the background rotation. As
decreases, the melt rate shows an increasing trend, which is expected to reverse for very low
. This behaviour is explained by considering the integrated horizontal velocity at the base of the iceberg. For moderate
, a partial TC is formed and its effective blocking accelerates the flow under the remainder of the iceberg, which increases the melt rate since the melting is proportional to the flow velocity. It is expected that for very low
the melt rate decreases because, with the expansion of the TC, the region of flow acceleration occurs away from the base of the iceberg. For low free stream velocity the freshwater produced by the ice melting introduces another dynamical effect. It is observed that there is a threshold free stream velocity below which the melt rate is constant. This is explained with the formation of a gravity current at the base of the iceberg that insulates it from the free flow and controls its melting.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
In the collapsing phase of a molecular cloud, the molecular gas temperature is a key to understand the evolutionary process from a dense molecular cloud to stars. In order to know this, mapping observations in NH3 lines are required. Therefore, we made them based on the FUGIN (FOREST Unbiased Galactic plane Imaging survey with Nobeyama 45m telescope). The 6 maps were observed in NH3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) and H2O maser lines and obtained temperature maps; some show temperature gradient in a cloud. Additionally 72 cores were observed. These candidates were called as KAGONMA or KAG objects as abbreviation of KAgoshima Galactic Object survey with Nobeyama 45-M telescope in Ammonia lines. We show the results of two regions in W33 and discuss their astrophysical properties.
The low-mass end of the initial mass function remains poorly understood. In this mass range, very low-mass stars, brown dwarfs, and massive planets are able to form through a variety of physical processes. Here, we study the long-term evolution of disk-fragmented systems around low-mass stars, for the epoch up to 10 Myr (the typical lifetime of an embedded cluster) and up to 10 Gyr (the age of the Milky Way). We carry out N-body simulations to study the decay of disk-fragmented systems and the resulting end products. Our simulations indicate rapid decay and frequent physical collisions during the first 10 Myr. We find that disk fragmentation provides a viable mechanism for explaining hierarchical triple systems, the brown dwarf desert, single and binary brown dwarfs, and very low-mass binary systems in the solar neighbourhood.
Thanks especially to the ALMA interferometer, there are several new detections of CO gas in debris disks. Based on our own and archival ALMA observations, we found that the presence of CO gas in dust-rich debris disks around young (10–50 Myr) A-type stars is common. Interestingly, similarly dust-rich debris disks around young F-K type stars exhibit significantly lower gas incidence. The main difference between the two subsamples is related to a special population of gaseous debris disks whose total CO gas quantity is comparable to that of the less massive Herbig Ae disks. The origin of gas in these CO-rich debris systems is not fully clarified yet.
Self-Consistent 2D modelling of stellar wind interaction with the upper atmosphere of WASP-12b has been performed. The two case-scenarios of the planetary material escape and interaction with the stellar wind, namely the ‘blown by the wind’ (without the inclusion of tidal force) and ‘captured by the star’ (with the tidal force) have been modelled under different stellar XUV radiations and stellar wind parameters. In the first scenario, a shock is formed around the planet, and the planetary mass loss is controlled completely by the stellar radiation energy input. In the second scenario, the mass loss is mainly due to the gravitational interaction effects. The dynamics of MGII and related absorption were modelled with three sets of different stellar wind parameters and XUV flux values.
In order to determine the true impact of stellar multiplicity on the formation and evolution of planets, we initiated direct imaging surveys to search for (sub)stellar companions of exoplanet host stars on close orbits, as their gravitational impact on the planet bearing disk at first and on formed planets afterwards is expected to be maximal. According to theory these are the most challenging environments for planet formation and evolution but might occur quite frequently in the milky way, due to the large number of multiple stars within our galaxy. On this poster we showed results, obtained so far in the course of our AO and Lucky-imaging campaigns of exoplanet host stars, conducted with NACO/ESO-VLT for southern and with AstraLux/CAHA2.2m for northern targets, respectively. In addition, we introduced our new high contrast imaging survey with SPHERE/ESO-VLT to search for close companions of southern exoplanet host stars, and presented some first results.
Star formation is spatially clustered across a range of environments, from dense stellar clusters to unbound associations. As a result, radiative or dynamical interactions with neighbouring stars disrupt (proto)planetary systems and limit their radii, leaving a lasting impact on their potential habitability. In the solar neighbourhood, we find that the vast majority of stars form in unbound associations, such that the interaction of (proto)planetary systems with neighbouring stars is limited to the densest sub-regions. However, the fraction of star formation occurring in compact clusters was considerably higher in the past, peaking at ∼50% in the young Milky Way at redshift z ∼ 2. These results demonstrate that the large-scale star formation environment affects the demographics of planetary systems and the occupation of the habitable zone. We show that planet formation is governed by multi-scale physics, in which Mpc-scale events such as galaxy mergers affect the AU-scale properties of (proto)planetary systems.
It is thought that protoplanets formed in protoplanetary disks excite the orbital motion of the surrounding planetesimals, and the bow shocks caused by the highly excited planetesimals heat their icy component evaporating into gas. We have performed model calculations to study the evolution of molecular abundances of the evaporated icy component, which suggests sulfur-bearing molecules can be good tracers of icy planetesimal evaporation. Here we report the result of our ALMA observations of sulfur-bearing molecules towards protoplanetary disks. The lines were undetected but the obtained upper limits of the line fluxes and our model calculations give upper limits of the fractional abundances of x(H2S) < 10−11 and x(SO) < 10−10 in the outer disk. These results are consistent with the molecular abundances in comets in our Solar system.
Recent theories on the formation of the Solar System turned the attention to the study of low mass cloud cores in massive star forming regions. The Rosette Molecular Cloud is a well-known star forming area having highly filamentary structure with dense cores covering a wide range of masses. These pre- and protostellar cores were observed by Herschel and key core properties were derived from its data. With the Effelsberg 100m telescope a sample of these cores with masses ranging between 3-40 M⊙ were observed in ammonia inversion lines. In this work we are examining the correlations between these two datasets with the aim of gaining insight of the processes behind the star formation of the region.