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Excavations of pre-pottery levels at Gua Talimbue and Gua Sambagowala in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, have yielded nearly 4kg of baked-clay fragments, half of which exhibit intentional patterning. The fragments appear to derive from clay hearths. Here, the authors link the patterning on Early Holocene (c. 9900–8800 cal BP) fragments with the intention to enhance the appearance of the hearths’ rims. During the Mid/Late Holocene (c. 4500–2000 cal BP), patterning shifts to the interior surfaces. The effort and specialised skills required to impress patterns on these hearths is, to date, unique in the archaeology of pre-Neolithic Island Southeast Asia.
Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS) is a life-threatening condition. Immediate and proper treatment will decrease mortality rate. Patient awareness on ACS is still lacking and as the consequence, ACS patients do not seek immediate help.
The patients’ efforts to get rid of ACS symptoms.
The study was a descriptive, qualitative study in which a semi-structured, in-depth interview became the instrument. The respondents were 34 participants (including 17 ACS patients and 17 family caregivers). Data analysis was done by triangulation of data sources.
Three themes were obtained, namely: (1) prefer traditional and self-treatment, for example (a) traditional medicine, (b) taking non-prescription drugs to overcome ACS symptoms, and (c) spontaneous action; (2) using available health resources and facilities that consisted of (a) getting initial treatment at home by nurses, (b) visiting a health center to take care of the symptoms, and (c) using non-ambulance service to visit the health centers; and (3) expectations on health care services to patients composed by sub-themes such as (a) the expectation to get information that supports the healing, and (b) the caring attitude of the heath professional.
The results showed that in the prehospital setting when experiencing ACS symptoms, the patients try to overcome the symptoms independently. However, as the symptoms get worse, they utilize health facilities in different ways. At the time of obtaining health services, patients are satisfied with health professionals who show caring attitudes, explain the results of the examination, and provide health education on health care efforts. Thus, to prevent mortality and morbidity, it is important for a health professional to educate the public about ACS, including topics about ACS healthy lifestyles and potential threats if it is too late to get treatment. Furthermore, it is also important for the government to implement prehospital emergency services nation-wide.KumboyonoK, RefialdinataJ, WihastutiTA, RachmawatiSD, AzizAN. Health-Seeking Behavior of Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Their Family Caregivers. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(6):614–620.
In radiotherapy planning, computed tomography (CT) images are used to calculate the dose in the patient. However, a high density hip prosthesis can cause streaking artefacts in CT images, which make dose calculations for nearby organs inaccurate. This study aim to quantify the impact of a hip prosthesis on 6 MV photon beam dose distribution using the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. To quantify the radiation dose at the hip prosthesis accurately, image processing techniques were used to generate CT images free from streak artefacts. MATLAB software was used to produce computer-generated phantoms consisting of bone, titanium, stainless steel and CoCrMo. Percentage depth dose (PDD) and beam profile were used to analyse the impact of the hip prosthesis on the dose distribution of the photon beam. PDD showed that the absorbed dose was reduced as the density of the material increased, and the dose was reduced by as much as 49% when the photon beam struck the highest density material (CoCrMo, 8·2g/cm3). However, dose was increased at the tissue-hip prosthesis interface (depths of 4 and 19cm). As the depth increased, the absorbed dose decreased due to attenuation of photons by the tissue and the metal.
In order to compare estimates by one assessment scale across various cultures/ethnic groups, an important aspect that needs to be demonstrated is that its construct across these groups is invariant when measured using a similar and simultaneous approach (i.e., demonstrated cross-cultural measurement invariance). One of the methods for evaluating measurement invariance is testing for differential item functioning (DIF), which assesses whether different groups respond differently to particular items. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-cultural measurement invariance of the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale (RCADS) in societies with different socioeconomic, cultural, and religious backgrounds.
The study was organised by the International Child Mental Health Study Group. Self-reported data were collected from adolescents residing in 11 countries: Brazil, Bulgaria, Croatia, Indonesia, Montenegro, Nigeria, Palestinian Territories, the Philippines, Portugal, Romania and Serbia. The multiple-indicators multiple-causes model was used to test the RCADS items for DIF across the countries.
Ten items exhibited DIF considering all cross-country comparisons. Only one or two items were flagged with DIF in the head-to-head comparisons, while there were three to five items flagged with DIF, when one country was compared with the others. Even with all cross-culturally non-invariant items removed from nine language versions tested, the original factor model representing six anxiety and depressive symptoms subscales was not significantly violated.
There is clear evidence that relatively small number of the RCADS items is non-invariant, especially when comparing two different cultural/ethnic groups, which indicates on its sound cross-cultural validity and suitability for cross-cultural comparisons in adolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms.
Introduction: Measures of satisfaction are essential to understanding patient experience, and pain management. Currently, there are no validated tools to quantify children’s satisfaction. To develop such a tool, we must first understand which words children use to communicate satisfaction. Our objectives were to (A) to identify the words commonly used by children of different ages to communicate satisfaction, in general, and in the context of pain management, and (B) to determine if this vocabulary is similar to that used by their caregiver. Methods: A qualitative study of 105 children-parent pairs, aged 3-16 years, who were evaluated at a pediatric emergency department (PED) from July-November 2014 was conducted. Children were interviewed using a semi-structured format of ten open-ended questions. They were asked to describe their feelings when 1) they received something they wanted/needed, 2) their expectations were met or not met in the ED, and 3) their pain was or was not relieved. A written survey was also completed by the caregiver. Interviews were transcribed and grounded theory was employed for data coding and analysis. Results: 105 child interviews were completed (n=53 female, mean age 9.91 SD 3.71, age range 4-16). 105 caregiver surveys were completed (n=80 female). “Good”, “better,” and “happy” were most commonly used by all children (n=99) to express satisfaction with pain management (27%, 21% and 22%, respectively), with PED care (31%, 14% and 33%) and in general (13%, 5% and 49%). Children (n=99) used the words “sad”, “bad,” and “not good” to communicate dissatisfaction with pain management (21%, 7% and 11% respectively), and with PED care (21%, 13% and 12%, respectively). Only 55% of children understood the meaning of the word ‘satisfaction’. Children used words that were similar to their caregiver 14% of the time. Conclusion: The word “satisfaction” should not be used to communicate with children in the emergency department, as many lack understanding of the term. The vocabulary that children use to describe satisfaction does not largely vary with context and involves simpler words than their parents. Caregiver vocabulary should not be used as a surrogate for pediatric patients. This study will inform the development of a validated tool to measure children’s satisfaction with pain management.
The nematode Angiostrongylus vasorum is becoming more widely recorded globally, and is of increasing concern as a cause of disease in dogs. Apparent geographic spread is difficult to confirm due to a lack of standardized disease recording systems, increasing awareness among veterinary clinicians, and recent improvements in diagnostic technologies. This study examines the hypothesis that A. vasorum has spread in recent years by repeating the methods of a previous survey of the fox population. The hearts and lungs of 442 foxes from across Great Britain were collected and examined by dissection and flushing of the pulmonary circulation and microscopic inspection of tracheal scrapes. Sampling and parasite extraction methods were identical to an earlier survey in 2005 to ensure comparability. Prevalence of A. vasorum was 18·3% (exact binomial confidence bounds 14·9–22·3), compared with 7·3% previously (5·3–9·9, n = 546), and had increased significantly in most regions, e.g. 7·4% in the Northern UK (previously zero) and 50·8% in the south-east (previously 23·2%). Other nematodes identified were Crenosoma vulpis (prevalence 10·8%, CI 8·1–14·2) and Eucoleus aerophilus (31·6%, CI 27·3–36·2). These data support the proposal that A. vasorum has increased in prevalence and has spread geographically in Great Britain.
This study aimed to describe the transmission dynamics, the serological and virus excretion patterns of Nipah virus (NiV) in Pteropus vampyrus bats. Bats in captivity were sampled every 7–21 days over a 1-year period. The data revealed five NiV serological patterns categorized as high and low positives, waning, decreasing and increasing, and negative in these individuals. The findings strongly suggest that NiV circulates in wild bat populations and that antibody could be maintained for long periods. The study also found that pup and juvenile bats from seropositive dams tested seropositive, indicating that maternal antibodies against NiV are transmitted passively, and in this study population may last up to 14 months. NiV was isolated from the urine of one bat, and within a few weeks, two other seronegative bats seroconverted. Based on the temporal cluster of seroconversion, we strongly believe that the NiV isolated was recrudesced and then transmitted horizontally between bats during the study period.
Rapid thermal annealing of the electroluminescent phosphors ZnS:Mn, SrS:CeF3 and ZnS:SmCl3 has been examined as a function of annealing temperature (500–750°C) and time of exposure (10–120 sec.). The resulting brightness and efficiency of luminescence are correlated with the different processing conditions used. The results indicate that the brightness can be significantly improved from the value obtained with furnace annealing without causing film delamination, blistering or fatigue effect.
A comprehensive study of MeV-15N-ion-implanted InP by a variety of analytical techniques has revealed the physical processes involved in MeV ion implantation into III-V compound semiconductors as well as the influence of post-implantation annealing. It provides a coherent picture of implant distribution, structural transition, crystalline damage, and lattice strain in InP crystals induced by ion implantation and thermal annealing. The experimental results from the different measurements are summarized in this report. Mechanisms of amorphization by implantation and recrystallization through annealing in MeV-ion-implanted InP are proposed and discussed in light of the results obtained.
Near-surface compositional modification of ion-bombarded alloys results from the dynamic interplay of several atomistic processes. In addition to displacement mixing leading to t randomization of atomic locations, which is dominant at relatively low temperatures, and preferential loss of alloying elements by sputtering, many thermally-activated processes, including radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and Gibbsian adsorption, also play important roles. The relative contributions of these processes to the evolution of the target composition profile depends on the target materials and irradiation variables. Although a good understanding of the individual processes has been achieved, information regarding their synergistic effects on alloy surface modification is still limited. In the present article, these processes will be characterized in simple physical terms, and the present understanding of their relative significance and contributions in changing the target composition during ion bombardment will be discussed in view of recent progress in theoretical modeling and experimental study.
Four Cu-Zr alloys, Cu56Zr44, Cu50Zr50, Cu47Zr53, and Cu33Zr67, were surface melted with electron and pulsed laser beams to compare their kinetics of nucleation, growth and glass formation. It was observed that the ease of glass formation increased in the order: Cu33Zr67, Cu47Zr53, Cu56Zr44, and Cu50Zr50. The nucleation and regrowth produced different metastable phases. At the equiatomic composition, the preferred phase is a CsCl-type (B2) BCC structure. As the composition deviates from this, the preferred phase is either orthorhombic or tetragonal with a much larger unit cell not previously reported in the literature. The maximum growth velocity of these metastable phases was found to be about 0.025 m/s. The slow kinetics are responsible for the ease of glass formation in these systems.
The fraction of impurity atoms in the liquid at the solid-liquid interface that join the crystal, known as the segregation coefficient k, during rapid crystal growth is known to deviate away from the equilibrium value towards unity as the interface speed v increases. Several plausible models have been proposed that account qualitatively for this behavior with different functional forms of k(v). We report measurements of the segregation behavior during rapid solidification following pulsed laser melting of Bi-implanted Si. The velocity dependence and the orientation dependence of the segregation coefficient of Bi in Si has been determined to sufficient accuracy to allow us to distinguish between models. Implications for the mechanism of solute trapping are discussed.
NiSi and Ni2Si layers on silicon substrates as well as high fluence Si(As) ion implanted layers,have been rapidly melted by 30 ns Nd laser pulse irradiation.The energy density ranged between 0.4 and 1.2 J/cm2. Bilayer structures have been observed when the energy density has been chosen properly.
Buried epitaxial layers together with an amorphous or a policrystalline layer on top,have been detected by RBS and TEM measurements.
Single crystals of α-Al2O3 were implanted with 57Fe+ at room temperature to fluences ranging from 1016 to 1017 ions/cm2. The damage in the implanted zone and the valence states and local environment of implanted ions were studied by transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering-channelling, and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy. The implanted iron was distributed among the three charge states Fe2+, Fe3+, and Fe°(metallic clusters) with the relative amount of each varying with concentration of implanted iron.
Pulsed laser mixing has been used as surface modification technique for the improvement in the mechanical properties of ceramics. Thin metallic layers of nickel were deposited on structural silicon nitride and were irradiated with Xenon Chloride (XeCl) laser pulses. The laser parameters were optimized to lead to the formation of mixed layers. The mixed interfacial layers were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) techniques. Detailed heat flow calculations were performed to simulate the effects of intense laser irradiation on metal coated ceramic structures. The melt lifetimes and the interfacial temperatures obtained using these calculations, were applied to understand the laser mixing phenomena occuring in these layered structures. Thermodynamics of chemical reactions between the metal overlayers and the substrate were done to predict the formation of mixed interfacial layers during laser irradiation.
We have employed pump-and-probe techniques coupled to ellipsometry to measure the transient complex index of refraction at 1.064 μm of higly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) interacting with 20 ps, .532 μm laser pulses. When the laser pump fluence exceeds the threshold value for melting, measurements indicate a substantial decrease of both real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction, thus confirming that molten graphite becomes less metallic. Measurements provide also direct evidence of the insensitivity of our picosecond results to evaporation from the irradiated surface.