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As part of a study investigating the carbon balance of a blanket bog, we made an assessment of the spatial variation of radiocarbon concentrations in the surface layers of a small area of peatland in the north of England. The peat depth at which bomb-14C content was the highest varied considerably between cores sampled from across the site. At several sampling locations, 14C levels >100% Modern were confined to the surface 8 cm, whereas bomb 14C was evident at 1 site, located only meters away, to a depth of at least 12–16 cm. Using the layer where 14C levels first exceeded 100% Modern as a chronological reference layer, we estimated the carbon accumulation rate over the last 50 yr for the surface peat at each site (range ∼20 to ∼125 g C m2 yr-1). Our results show that although carbon accumulation over the last 50 yr was similar across the site, variation in the depth to which bomb 14C was evident implied considerable variation in the vertical peat growth rate.
A method for collecting an isotopically representative sample of CO2 from an air stream using a zeolite molecular sieve is described. A robust sampling system was designed and developed for use in the field that includes reusable molecular sieve cartridges, a lightweight pump, and a portable infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). The system was tested using international isotopic standards (13C and 14C). Results showed that CO2 could be trapped and recovered for both δ13C and 14C analysis by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), respectively, without any contamination, fractionation, or memory effect. The system was primarily designed for use in carbon isotope studies of ecosystem respiration, with potential for use in other applications that require CO2 collection from air.
La Commission vient de subir une lourde perte en la personne de George Ellery Hale, Directeur honoraire de l’Observatoire du Mont Wilson, décédé le 21 février 1938, à l’âge de 70 ans.
L’enregistrement des phénomènes chromosphériques qui sert de base aux relevés et statistiques publiés régulièrement par divers observatoires, a été poursuivi sans changements notables depuis le dernier congrès. Le tableau reproduit dans Trans. I.A.U. 5, 59, 1935 et dans lequel sont groupés les renseignements relatifs à ces travaux d’observation courante, est donc toujours valable.
Concentrations of a highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) diene determined in over 200 sediment samples from the Arctic co-vary with those of an HBI monoene (IP25) shown previously to be a sedimentary sea ice proxy for the Arctic. The same diene, but not monoene IP25, occurred in nine sea ice samples collected from various locations around Antarctica. The diene has been reported previously in Antarctic sea ice diatoms and the 13C isotopic compositions of the diene determined in two Antarctic sea ice samples were also consistent with an origin from sea ice diatoms (δ13C -5.7 to -8.5‰). In contrast, HBIs found in two Antarctic phytoplankton samples did not include the diene but comprised a number of tri- to pentaenes. In sediment samples collected near Adélie Land, East Antarctica, both the diene and the tri- to pentaenes often co-occurred. 13C isotopic compositions of the tri- to pentaenes in three sediment samples ranged from -35 to -42‰ whereas that of the diene in a sediment sample was -18‰. We propose the presence of this isotopically 13C enriched HBI diene in Antarctic sediments to be a useful proxy indicator for contributions of organic matter derived from sea ice diatoms. A ratio of the concentrations of diene/trienes might reflect the relative contributions of sea ice to phytoplanktonic inputs of organic matter to Antarctic sediments.
MBE growth of III-V nitrides is being studied at NCSU using MOVPE grown GaN buffer layers on SiC as substrates. Rf plasma sources are being used for the generation of active nitrogen during MBE deposition. Through the use of multiple rf plasma sources, sufficient active nitrogen is generated in order to examine the properties of III-V nitride layers grown at higher substrate temperatures and growth rates. The resulting MBE-grown GaN films exhibit remarkably intense photoluminescence (PL) dominated by a sharp band-edge peak at 3.409 eV having a FWHM of 36 meV at 300K. No deep level emission is observed. AlGaN and InGaN films and quantum well structures have also been prepared using multiple sources. A modulated beam MBE approach is used in conjunction with the multiple rf plasma sources to grow InGaN. RHEED and TEM studies reveal flat 2D InGaN quantum well structures. Depending on the indium content, GaN/InGaN single-quantum-well structures exhibit electroluminescence at 300K peaked in the blue-violet to the green spectral region.
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) systems have been steadily gaining acceptance as specimen preparation tools in the semiconductor industry. This is largely due to the fact that such instruments are relatively commonplace as failure analysis tools in semiconductor houses, and are commonly used in the preparation of cross-sections for imaging under the ion beam or using an electron beam in an SEM. Additionally, the ease with which cross-sectional TEM specimens of semiconductor devices can be prepared using FIB systems has been well demonstrated. However, this technology is largely unknown outside the semiconductor industry. Relatively few references exist in the literature on the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens of non-semiconductor materials by FIB.
This paper discusses a specific use of FIB technology in the preparation of cross-sectional TEM specimens of non-semiconductor samples that are difficult to prepare by conventional means. One example of such materials is commercial galvannealed steel sheet that is used to form corrosion resistant auto-bodies for the automobile industry. Cross-sectional TEM specimens of this material have proved difficult and time-intensive to prepare by standard polishing and ion milling techniques due to galvanneal's inherent flaking and powdering difficulties, as well as the different sputtering rates of the various Fe-Zn intermetallic phases present in the galvannealed coatings. TEM results from cross-sectional samples of commercial galvannealed steel coatings prepared by conventional ion milling and FIB techniques are compared to assess image quality, the size of the electron-transparent thin regions that can be readily prepared and the quality of samples produced by both techniques. Specimen preparation times for both techniques are reported.
In this paper, we report the electrical and optical characteristics of Si delta-doped AlGaN cladding layers, p-cladding structure optimization and the impact on the efficiency of 340nm AlGaN UV LEDs. Compared to the uniformly doped n-AlGaN layer, adding Si Δ-doping layers reduced the sheet resistance by improving both the Hall mobility and carrier concentration. Increasing the number of Si Δ-doped layers further lowered the sheet resistance without cracking the material. The Δ-doped layers in n-Al0.3Ga0.7N improved the optical properties by enhancing near band edge emission as much as 2-fold relative to deep level emission. Additionally, Δ-doping in n-AlGaN layers had no detrimental effect on the optical transparency of the LEDs. The p-cladding layer was found to have a strong absorption at 340nm. Reducing the p-GaN cap layer from 35nm to 10nm tripled the light emission intensity. By optimizing the n- and p-AlGaN cladding layers, a highly efficient UV LED at 340nm was achieved with 1mW output under 800mA/mm2 DC drive current.