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This study gives details of a rare case of petrous apicitis that presented as Gradenigo's syndrome and was managed surgically.
This study presents a case report and review of the literature.
A four-year-old female was admitted for failure to thrive following recent sinusitis. Physical examination was positive for right sided facial pain, photophobia and right abducens nerve palsy. Subsequent magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 1.3 × 1.7 × 1.4 cm abscess encompassing the right Meckel's cave. A computed tomography scan showed petrous apicitis and otomastoiditis, confirming Gradenigo's syndrome. The patient was taken to the operating theatre for right intact canal wall mastoidectomy with myringotomy and tube placement. She was discharged on six weeks of ceftriaxone administered by a peripherally inserted central catheter line. At a two-week post-operative visit, she showed notable improvement in neuropathic symptoms.
This study presents a rare case of petrous apicitis managed surgically without the need for a craniotomy or transcochlear procedure.
Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes are known to express furosemide (Lasix®)-sensitive P-type membrane Na+-ATPase. In the present study, furosemide activity was studied in intracellular amastigotes and infected BALB/c mice to investigate its efficacy in cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Intracellular parasites, but not macrophages, were found to be sensitive to killing by furosemide (IC50 = 87 µmvs CC50 ≫ 1000 µm, respectively). Although furosemide did not induce nitric oxide production or intracellular pH changes in infected macrophages, it led to a significant reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. Freshly isolated tissue parasites expressed a high degree of Na+-ATPase activity that decreased with culture, indicative of a higher enzyme expression in amastigotes than in promastigotes. Both intraperitoneal and oral treatment of L. amazonensis-infected mice with furosemide dosages equivalent to that prescribed as a diuretic significantly reduced the parasite's growth compared with the situation in untreated mice. Combination with oral furosemide increased the efficacy and safety of intraperitoneal treatment with sodium stibogluconate (SSG). To summarize, furosemide control of intracellular leishmanial growth by means of parasite Na+-ATPase inhibition, and macrophage ROS activation may help explain its sole and SSG-combined therapeutic effect against murine CL.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
The stellar occultation technique is a powerful tool to study distant small solar system bodies. Currently, around 2 500 trans-neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs are known. With the astrometry from Gaia and large surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), accurate predictions of occultation events will be available to tens of thousands of TNOs and Centaurs and boost the knowledge of the outer solar system.
The critical essays in this volume are dedicated to the works of Argentine writer Silvina Ocampo (1903-1993) and introduce readers more fully to a figure who has long been a kind of insider's secret among intellectuals of her country. As the title suggests, the purpose of the volume is to move beyond the codification of Ocampo's use of the supernatural, an early oversimplification of her work. Theessays address the quirkiness, cruelty, violence, and overt sexuality of her works, elements which have impeded a full understanding of her creative vision. Here it becomes clear that Silvina Ocampowas a co-contributor to the literary enterprise of the Sur generation, which produced Jorge Luis Borges, Adolfo Bioy Casares, and Victoria Ocampo, and had a profound influence on writers of the younger generation, such as Alejandra Pizarnik, Sylvia Molloy, Marjorie Agosín and others.
Patricia N. Klingenberg is Professor of Latin American literature at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.
Fernanda Zullo-Ruiz is Associate Professor of Spanish at Hanover College in Madison, Indiana.
Controlled amounts of colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), electrochemically pre-synthesized, were directly deposited on MWCNTs sensor devices by electrophoresis. Pristine and Au-functionalized MWCNT networked films were tested as active layers in resistive gas sensors for detection of pollutant gases. Au-modified CNT-chemiresistor demonstrated higher sensitivity to NO2 detecting up to sub-ppm level compared to pristine one. The investigation of the cross-sensitivity towards other pollutant gases revealed the decrease of the sensitivity to NO2 with the increase of Au content, and, on the other side, the increase of that to H2S; therefore the fine tune of the metal loading on CNTs has allowed to control not only the gas sensitivity but also the selectivity towards a specific gaseous analyte. Finally, the sensing properties of Au-decorated CNT sensor seem to be promising in environmental and automotive gas sensing applications, based on low power consumption and moderate operating temperature.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
In this paper we study the dependence of the first eigenvalue of the infinity Laplace with respect to the domain. We prove that this first eigenvalue is continuous under some weak convergence conditions which are fulfilled when a sequence of domains converges in Hausdorff distance. Moreover, it is Lipschitz continuous but not differentiable when we consider deformations obtained via a vector field. Our results are illustrated with simple examples.
Multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) has proven in
several studies to have a high diagnostic accuracy for the detection
or exclusion of coronary artery disease. A major concern with coronary
MSCT, however, is the associated radiation exposure of patients.
Recent studies suggest that use of a 64-slice scanner is associated
with a non-negligible lifetime attributable risk of cancer. Several
strategies can be used to reduce patient exposure in coronary MSCT.
The purpose of this multicenter study was to investigate the effects
of the adjustment of tube voltage and current on radiation dose
and image interpretability. MSCT with retrospective ECG gating was performed
in 315 patients. The dose-length product (DLP) in the patients enrolled
with the dose reduction protocol resulted in a 36% overall reduction
in the mean radiation dose (911 ± 289 mGy.cm) compared with the
standard protocol (1427 ± 226 mGy.cm, p < 0.001).
Nevertheless, image interpretability was maintained. This study
on coronary MSCT demonstrates that the radiation dose can be significantly reduced
by parameter optimization, with maintained image interpretability.
This study examined the prevalence of students’ reported experiences of bullying and victimization in primary and secondary schools and their association with levels of perceived stress and cannabis use.
We consecutively enrolled 407 students attending three secondary schools in Pavia (Italy). Bullying and victimization were measured using the retrospective bullying questionnaire (RQB). The 10-item perceived stress scale (PSS-10) was used to assess the degree to which situations in life were perceived as stressful. Data on demographic characteristics and cannabis use in the previous 6 months were also collected.
There were 328 victims (80.6%) and 221 bullies (52.1%). The results of the stepwise regression analysis with bullying as the dependent variable were significant with either male sex (R2 = 0.030, p = 0.024) or PSS-10 scores (R2 = 0.056, p = 0.036) in the model. With victimization as the dependent variable, only the PSS-10 scores were retained in the model as an independent predictor variable (R2 = 0.048, p < 0.001).
The results from this study indicate that the level of perceived stress has an independent association with both bullying and victimization. Further studies are needed to clarify the psychobiological links between stress, cannabis use and bullying behaviours.