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Uttar Pradesh (UP), with more than 220 million people, is the most populous state in India. Despite a high unmet need for modern family planning methods, the state has experienced a substantial decline in fertility. India has also seen a decline during this period which can be attributed to the increased prevalence of modern methods of family planning, particularly female sterilisation, but in UP, the corresponding increase was marginal. At the same time, Traditional Family Planning Methods (TMs) increased significantly in UP in contrast to India, where it was marginal. The trends in UP raise questions about the drivers in fertility decline and question the conventional wisdom that fertility declines are driven by modern methods, and the paper aims to understand this paradox. Fertility trends and family planning practices in UP were analysed using data from different rounds of National Family Health Surveys (NFHS) and the two UP Family Planning Surveys conducted by the UP Technical Support Unit to understand whether the use of TMs played a role in the fertility decline. As per NFHS-4, the prevalence of TM in India (6%) was less than half that of UP (13%). The UP Family Planning Survey in 25 High Priority Districts estimated that 22% of women used TMs. The analysis also suggested that availability and accessibiility of modern contraceptives might have played a role in the increased use of TMs in UP. If there are still couples who make a choice in favour of TMs, they should be well informed about the risks associated with the use of traditional methods as higher failure rate is observed among TMs users.
Within the last few years, a need for renewed product personalisation has been observed in some markets such as consumer electronics, fashion to meet the exact demands of the customers. Product customisation emphasises the fulfilment of explicit requirements of a defined market segment, but product individualisation targets at satisfying the particular needs of a customer. Mass Individualisation (MI) is a new product design approach comprising of an open hardware platform and multiple modules to be integrated with the platform. It gives freedom to end-users to integrate different modules into the platform as per their choice. Technological and strategic integration of all actors involved in the design process is the primary focus of this research. This paper identifies key areas which need to be focussed on to realise this approach and convert it into an industrial practice by an explorative study of existing product design and customisation approaches. An industrial survey was conducted, and results for the industrial implication and insights on this approach are presented. The findings show that the end product from product design for MI will be more creative and innovative by the networking of all actors, and offers more individualised and technologically advanced products.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
This article features the recent developments in fluorographene (FG) and its other functional forms such as fluorographene oxide—their synthesis, fluorination, defluorination, and applications. FG is identified as an important functional derivative of graphene, and FG’s multifunctionalities make it as an ideal candidate for diverse fields, say from photovoltaic to bio-medical diagnosis, imaging, sensing, and therapy. Here the possibilities of FG as a biomedical sensing platform is discussed in detail and the potentials of FG based electrochemical and conductometric sensing platforms are unraveled. The importance of fluorine control as well as the other key factors need to be considered while choosing FG based bio-sensing platforms are also discussed.
Safflower is a traditional oilseed crop in the world. Its seed oil is a healthy edible oil containing high amount of unsaturated fatty acids. Genetically diverse exotic cultivars are valuable germplasm for introducing new diversity in safflower improvement programmes. In this study, we characterized safflower cultivars of India (30) and Mexico (23) comprising varieties, hybrids and advanced lines developed over 50 years for genetic distinctiveness using 38 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. Genetic diversity estimates across cultivar groups (total, India and Mexico) were as follows: mean number of alleles (3.2, 3.1, 2.6), expected heterozygosity (0.42, 0.37, 0.37) and polymorphism information content (0.36, 0.33, 0.32) respectively, which suggested narrow SSR allelic diversity within and between cultivar groups. However, distance-based cluster analysis (neighbour-joining tree) and model-based STRUCTURE analysis revealed that safflower cultivars of India and Mexico, with the exception of a few, form two genetically distinct groups. High level of genetic variation explained between the populations (40%) and Fst estimate (0.4) suggested that the cultivar groups were highly differentiated with limited gene flow supporting a strong genetic structuring. High oil (~38%) and high oleic (73–79%) contents of a subset of Mexican safflower varieties and advanced lines were confirmed in field trials in India. These exotic sources from Mexico are valuable for safflower breeding programmes in India to develop new cultivars with high oil yielding potential and high oleic acid content, which is the current market demand.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.
Highly transparent and conducting Fluorine doped zinc oxide thin films were deposited using spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates held at 450 °C. The X-ray diffraction study revealed that as the dopant concentration increases in ZnO films, the intensity of the preferential orientation of (002) reflection decreased and (101) was found to increase up to 5 at. % F. The crystallite size was varied from 40 to 50 nm with dopant concentration. The optical band gap of the un-doped films was 3.30 eV and it increased to 3.34 eV for 3 at. % F. The refractive index of the films was increased from 2.05 to 2.18 with the increase of dopant concentration from 0 to 5 at. %. The scanning electron microscopy results depicted that the microstructure of ZnO: F films highly influenced by the fluorine doping. After annealing the films in hydrogen atmosphere, the resistivity of the films decreased as increase the dopant concentration and it is 4×10−3 Ω cm for 3at. % F beyond which it increased. The mobility of the charge carriers was 14 cm2/ V sec and the carrier concentration was 7.8×1019 cm3 obtained for the films doped with 3 at. % of fluorine concentration in the starting solution.
A low thermal budget process for back-end compatible PCMO based RRAM cell is essential for 3D stacked memory. In this paper, we investigate two strategies to engineer low thermal budget processing for bipolar switching - (i) deposition engineering i.e. based on deposition temperature and oxygen partial pressure, (ii) post deposition anneal i.e. based on inert anneal of room temperature deposited PCMO film.. We demonstrate that both deposition and anneal shows a transition temperature above which bipolar switching is realized. Oxygen partial pressure is a key deposition process parameter. As oxygen partial pressure is reduced memory window increases, however beyond an optimal O2 partial pressure, unipolar switching is observed. Inert anneal is more effective in thermal budget reduction as N2/550°C/2min anneal has same memory performance as 650°C/2hour deposition process.
The role of field-induced electrochemical migration oxygen ions in switching behaviour of LSMO films is established through I-V measurements under various top electrode device configurations. We report observation of bubbling, mechanical damage and delamination of top electrode in LSMO-based large area RRAM devices. Polarity dependence of this phenomenon, as observed in-situ during electrical measurements, reveals O-evolution to be the likely cause for such electrode damage. The effect of this phenomenon on switching behaviour of devices with reactive as well as inert top electrodes is presented. To mitigate the electrode integrity issue, we explore the use of conducting oxide electrodes on the active LSMO film.
This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007–2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere.
A path planning algorithm for a spherical mobile robot rolling on a plane is presented in this paper. The robot is actuated by two internal rotors that are fixed to the shafts of two motors. These are in turn mounted on the spherical shell in mutually orthogonal directions. The system is nonholonomic due to the nonintegrable nature of the rolling constraints. Further, the system cannot be converted into a chained form, and neither is it nilpotent nor differentially flat. So existing techniques of nonholonomic path planning cannot be applied directly to the system. The approach presented here uses simple geometrical notions and provides numerically efficient and intuitive solutions. We also present the dynamic model and derive motor torques for execution of the algorithm. Along the proposed paths, we achieve dynamic decoupling of the variables making the algorithm more suitable for practical applications.
Rhizoctonia solani is a destructive fungal pathogen of many economically important plants all over the world and the causative organism of sheath blight of rice in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. A repetitive sequence from the genome of R. solani was cloned and characterized with a view to develop a DNA probe and a PCR diagnostic assay for detection of the fungus. The cloned sequence was 1550 bp long and appeared to be interspersed throughout the genome. The cloned sequence hybridized only to R. solani DNA and was sensitive enough to detect 100 pg of R. solani genomic DNA. PCR primers were designed from the cloned sequence and it was possible to develop a PCR assay for the specific detection of the fungal DNA with 10 pg sensitivity.
This work is aimed at understanding the nature of the interactions between
metal interconnects and nanoporous dielectrics in integrated circuits.
Electrical testing of MIS capacitors is used to assess Cu diffusion and
charge injection in the dielectric in the presence of an electric field. We
have found that surface modification of nanoporous silica reveals the
importance of chemically bound or adsorbed water species in the dielectric
and how they trigger metal diffusion. We propose that a combination of
moisture-related species in the dielectric and interfacial oxygen oxidize
Cu. The copper oxide acts as a source for Cu ions available for diffusion. A
quantitative analysis of Cu drift in nanoporous dielectrics that shows the
importance of surface chemistry is presented and the mechanism of metal
diffusion and charge injection in nanoporous dielectrics is discussed.
Polymerization occurring during fluorocarbon plasma treatment as a potential
method for pore sealing was investigated. CHF3 was used as a
reactant gas to expedite the rate of polymerization due to the presence of
hydrogen and the low C/F ratio. The reactor pressure was varied from 30mTorr
to 90mTorr to change the number of neutrals that act as the polymerizing
species. The films were exposed to the plasma for times of 1min, 3min, and 5
min to observe the penetration depth of neutrals and the thickness of
modified layer as a function of time. Dielectric constants were measured
before and after plasma treatment. The film morphology was investigated by
scanning electron microscopy before and after plasma treatment and a
featureless surface morphology was observed at 90mTorr on a 56% porosity
film. After plasma treatment, the average pore neck size decreases which may
help reduce metal precursor penetration during metallization.