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Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Psychiatric diagnostic manuals recognise the importance of local expressions of distress in culturally diverse settings [i.e. idioms/cultural concepts of distress (CCDs)], yet there is a lack of consensus on how these should be incorporated into mental health related research.
To perform a narrative synthesis and critical review of research exploring how idioms/CCDs have been integrated into assessment measures and interventions.
A systematic review was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. An adapted version of the COSMIN checklist was used to assess the quality of the linguistic translation of the idioms/CCDs.
Twenty-nine papers were included in the final review. Primary qualitative research was the most common method of gathering information about idioms/CCDs. The majority of studies described integrating idioms/CCDs into assessment measures as opposed to interventions. Some studies used information relating to idioms/CCDs to develop novel assessment measures, while others adapted pre-existing assessment measures. The measures generated moderate to high levels of validity. Information relating to the linguistic translation conducted in the completion of the studies tended to be inadequately reported.
Integrating information about idioms/CCDs into assessment measures can enhance the validity of these assessments. Allocating greater research attention to idioms/CCDs can also promote more equitable exchanges of knowledge about mental health and wellbeing between the Global North and the Global South.
The GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array survey is a radio continuum survey at 72–231 MHz of the whole sky south of declination +30º, carried out with the Murchison Widefield Array. In this paper, we derive source counts from the GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison data at 200, 154, 118, and 88 MHz, to a flux density limit of 50, 80, 120, and 290 mJy respectively, correcting for ionospheric smearing, incompleteness and source blending. These counts are more accurate than other counts in the literature at similar frequencies as a result of the large area of sky covered and this survey’s sensitivity to extended emission missed by other surveys. At S154 MHz > 0.5 Jy, there is no evidence of flattening in the average spectral index (α ≈ −0.8 where S ∝ vα) towards the lower frequencies. We demonstrate that the Square Kilometre Array Design Study model by Wilman et al. significantly underpredicts the observed 154-MHz GaLactic and Extragalactic All-sky Murchison counts, particularly at the bright end. Using deeper Low-Frequency Array counts and the Square Kilometre Array Design Study model, we find that sidelobe confusion dominates the thermal noise and classical confusion at v ≳ 100 MHz due to both the limited CLEANing depth and the undeconvolved sources outside the field-of-view. We show that we can approach the theoretical noise limit using a more efficient and automated CLEAN algorithm.
Globally, the prevalence of tuberculosis (TB) disease is higher in males. This study examined the effect of sex and age on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Demographic and exposure data were collected on household contacts of sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB patients in Brazil. Contacts with tuberculin skin test induration ⩾10 mm at baseline or 12 weeks were considered Mtb infected. The study enrolled 917 household contacts from 160 households; 508 (55.4%) were female, median age was 21.0 years (range 0.30–87.0) and 609 (66.4%) had Mtb infection. The proportion infected increased with age from 63.3% in girls <5 years to 75.4% in women ⩾40 years and from 44.9% in boys <5 years to 73.6% in men ⩾40 years. Multivariable modelling showed the odds of infection increased between age 5 and 14 years among female contacts (OR 1.5 per 5-year age increase; 95% CI 1.1–2.2; P = 0.02) and between ages 0–4 and 15–39 years among male contacts (OR 2.7, 95% CI 0.83–8.9 and 1.1, 95% CI 0.99–1.3 per 5-year age increase; P = 0.10, 0.07, respectively). The study suggests that the age at which Mtb infection increases most is different in females compared with males. Studies are needed to explore whether these findings are due to differences in host susceptibility, exposure outside the household or other factors.
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.
To evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics.
Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit.
A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15–3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98–10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7–15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56–1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26–0.97).
The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.
Declaration of interest
Drs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the original sponsor of the development of the PHQ-9, which is now in the public domain. Dr Chan is a steering committee member or consultant of Astra Zeneca, Bayer, Lilly, MSD and Pfizer. She has received sponsorships and honorarium for giving lectures and providing consultancy and her affiliated institution has received research grants from these companies. Dr Hegerl declares that within the past 3 years, he was an advisory board member for Lundbeck, Servier and Otsuka Pharma; a consultant for Bayer Pharma; and a speaker for Medice Arzneimittel, Novartis, and Roche Pharma, all outside the submitted work. Dr Inagaki declares that he has received grants from Novartis Pharma, lecture fees from Pfizer, Mochida, Shionogi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Daiichi-Sankyo, Meiji Seika and Takeda, and royalties from Nippon Hyoron Sha, Nanzando, Seiwa Shoten, Igaku-shoin and Technomics, all outside of the submitted work. Dr Yamada reports personal fees from Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., MSD K.K., Asahi Kasei Pharma Corporation, Seishin Shobo, Seiwa Shoten Co., Ltd., Igaku-shoin Ltd., Chugai Igakusha and Sentan Igakusha, all outside the submitted work. All other authors declare no competing interests. No funder had any role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript; and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.
Symmetries of a fluid-gyrokinetic model are investigated using Lie group techniques. Specifically, the nonlinear system constructed by Zocco & Schekochihin (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 18, 2011, 102309), which combines nonlinear fluid equations with a drift-kinetic description of parallel electron dynamics, is studied. Significantly, this model is fully gyrokinetic, allowing for arbitrary
is the perpendicular wave vector of the fluctuations and
the ion gyroradius. The model includes integral operators corresponding to gyroaveraging as well as the moment equations relating fluid variables to the kinetic distribution function. A large variety of exact symmetries is uncovered, some of which have unexpected form. Using these results, new nonlinear solutions are constructed, including a helical generalization of the Chapman–Kendall solution for a collapsing current sheet.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Housed pigs are exposed chronically to aerial pollutants, principally dust and ammonia, at concentrations that may affect performance, possibly by raising the incidence and prevalence of multi-factorial respiratory diseases. Tolerable limits for aerial pollutants are unknown. The aim of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that chronic exposure of weaner pigs to controlled concentrations of aerial dust and ammonia lead to slower growth and lower feed intake compared with controls kept in ‘fresh air’.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
A prompt radio burst has been observed from the supernova 1987a in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Observations were made at 0.843, 1.415, 2.29, and 8.41 GHz. At frequencies around 1 GHz, the peak flux density reached about 150 mJy and occurred within four days of the supernova. This event may be a weak precursor to a major radio outburst of the type previously observed in other extragalactic supernovae. Radio monitoring of the supernova is continuing at each of the above frequencies, and coordination is underway of a southern hemisphere VLBI array to map the radio outburst region as it expands. Differential astrometry carried out on prime-focus plates taken with the Anglo-Australian telescope indicates that the component, star 1, of Sanduleak's star SK-69202 is within 0.05 ± 0.13 arcsec of the supernova.
We describe a set of millimeter interferometric observations of solar flares carried out in conjunction with GRO experiments during the 1991 June Campaign of the Max'91 Program. We show evidence that millimeter emission probes the most energetic (MeV) electrons in solar flares; we also find that in the same flare there can be both impulsive nonthermal and gradual thermal millimeter emission. Millimeter emission usually occurs at the steep rise phase of the hard X-ray emitting electrons (25-100 KeV). There appears to exist some delay between BIMA mm-emission onset and GRO-BATSE 25-100 KeV X-ray emission. Both results have implications for the particle acceleration process.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
During September 1988 (International Solar Month) we observed the Sun with the Very Large Array on 4 days in the period Sep. 11-17. The VLA was in its most compact configuration, which is ideal for studying large-scale coronal structures. Here we summarize some preliminary results of the observations at 0.333 and 1.5 GHz. Despite the presence of numerous active regions the Sun was actually very quiet, with no flares during our observing, and this allowed us to make high-dynamic-range maps.
In 1987 we began a 5-year program to establish a reference system of at least 400 extragalactic sources which are compact and flat spectrum in the radio and which also display optical emission. This reference frame is to be global with about one source per 100 sq deg (Johnston, et al., 1988). The program incorporates some data which had been obtained previously for other purposes. Altogether, in one or another aspect of the program, 489 sources have been considered so far.
The Oxford 14C accelerator has operated with beam for some 400 hours. This report describes the progress made towards achieving dates from milligram samples with the required accuracy of better than 2%. In summary, it shows how 14C is relatively easily detected, but that the overall beam optical system is, at present, rather sensitive to effects which prevent reliable maintenance of the necessary isotope ratio stability. These effects can probably be eliminated by careful attention to details of the design rather than by major modifications.
In the two years since the first successful measurements of 14C by high energy mass spectrometry, the advantages and the basic techniques of the method have been sufficiently reported. They will not be repeated here. This paper describes the work being done at Oxford to fill the gap between demonstrating the effectiveness of the approach and the creation of a facility dedicated to the carbon dating of milligram samples.
We present preliminary results of grating observations of YY Mensae and V824 Arae by Chandra and XMM-Newton. Spectral features are presented in the context of the emission measure distributions, the coronal abundances, and plasma electron densities. In particular, we observe a coronal N/C enhancement in YY Men believed to reflect the photospheric composition (CN cycle). Finally, we interpret line broadening in YY Men as Doppler thermal broadening in its very hot corona.
HST ultra-violet and ground-based optical spectroscopy are presented for DI 1388, an early-type star in the Magellanic Bridge. These data have been supplemented with H I radio mapping of its environment. The spectroscopy shows interstellar components at LSR velocities of 0, 90 and 200 km s−1 – corresponding to the local ISM, a high velocity cloud and the Magellanic Bridge ISM, respectively. The last is the first absorption line detection of this material and shows the presence of both low (e.g., N I) and high (Si IV) ionization material. Further optical and HST UV observations of DI 1338 and another Bridge star, DGIK 975, are scheduled to investigate the chemical homogeneity and star formation history of the Bridge.
GRS1915+105 is an extraordinary X-ray transient which exhibits superluminal radio jets. In this paper, ASCA observations of the GRS1915+105 conducted from 1994 to 1997 are reported. Observations are carried out on the following dates each for ~ 20 ksec exposure; Sep 27 1994, April 20 1995, Oct 23 1996 and Apr 25 1997.