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The Miocene Solemyidae of Chile are revised. The holotype of Solemya antarctica Philippi, 1887, originally described as Solenomya, is lost. Due to the lack of information on internal characters, its systematic position is considered as uncertain. A new species, Solemya lucifuga n. sp., is described from the lower Miocene Ranquil Formation of south-central Chile. Its dense radial external ornamentation shows that it is clearly different from S. antarctica. It is currently the only confirmed and described Miocene solemyid bivalve from the Southern Hemisphere.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
This volume provides a modern introduction to the soil fauna and their contributions to ecosystem function, the mechanisms that structure soil fauna assemblages from local to global scales, and the potential impacts of global change on soil fauna assemblages and through this ecosystem function. Wanting to be an accessible primer, this book is a high level overview of current knowledge rather than a detailed tome of all existing information, with emphasis being placed on key findings and general patterns. It focuses on the soil fauna but contextualizes these assemblages in relation to the microbial assemblages belowground and the vegetation aboveground. It is clear that our knowledge of soil fauna assemblages is ever increasing, but there is still a lot to discover. Key areas of research are highlighted, with particular reference to the future of soil fauna assemblages.
Substantial amounts of annual radiocarbon (14C) data have recently been produced with the purpose of increasing the time resolution of 14C records used for constructing the calibration curve and for studying the occurrence of abrupt cosmic-ray events. In this study, we investigate if it is possible to resolve sub-annual scale changes in the atmospheric 14C content by measuring radiocarbon in early-wood and late-wood fractions from Danish oak. The tree-ring samples span the period 1954–1970 CE, hereby covering the peak of the bomb pulse. A least squares test comparing the atmospheric 14C content and the new sub-annual 14C record from Danish tree rings reveals that by measuring early-wood and late-wood fractions, it may be possible to resolve sub-annual variations in past atmospheric 14C levels.
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008–2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301–27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834–2052) in 15–64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015. This is compatible with the circulation of influenza A(H3N2). It is the largest estimated number of influenza-related deaths in England since prior to 2008/09. The findings highlight the potential health impact of influenza and the important role of the annual influenza vaccination programme that is required to protect the population including the elderly, who are vulnerable to a severe outcome.
Infield route planning is used to optimise field operations in order to decrease operational costs and environmental impacts. Route planners must be able to plan operations within real fields and account for real situations such as irregular shapes and obstacles. Therefore, a representative set of fields is required to robustly test the route planner. Instead of choosing randomly, which may result in a non-representative sample of the diversity of fields; a stratification strategy was used to separate the field dataset into strata. Proportional sampling from each stratum provided a representative sample of 217 fields, out of the original set of 603,218 from the Danish field database.
In order to exploit potentials of 20–40% reduction of herbicide use, as documented by use of Decision Support Systems (DSS), where requirements for manual field inspection constitute a major obstacle, large numbers of digital pictures of weed infestations have been collected and analysed manually by crop advisors. Results were transferred to: 1) DSS, which determined needs for control and connected, optimized options for control returned options for control and 2) convolutional, neural networks, which in this way were trained to enable automatic analysis of future pictures, which support both field- and site-specific integrated weed management.