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This study evaluated the effect of Bacillus subtilis C-3102 (Calsporin®) addition to the diet on faecal characteristics and nutrient digestibility in healthy adult dogs. Sixteen Beagles received either a low-energy control diet (CON; 3.35 Mcal metabolisable energy (ME)/kg with 21.8, 27.9, and 50.3% ME as protein, fat, and nitrogen-free extractives (NFE), respectively) or the same diet supplemented with Bacillus subtilis at 1 × 109 CFU/kg diet as probiotic (PRO) for four weeks in a parallel design (eight dogs per diet). In the prior two weeks, all dogs received a high-energy diet (Advance Medium Adult, Affinity Petcare®, 3.81 Mcal ME/kg ME with 24.8, 41.2, and 34% ME protein, fat, and NFE, respectively). Faecal consistency, dry matter (DM), pH, and NH3 were analysed on fresh samples collected at the start and weekly throughout the study. Additional samples were collected for the determination of lactate and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) on days 0 and 21. In week four, a five–day total faecal collection was conducted in six dogs from each diet for the determination of nutrient apparent digestibility. Dogs fed the PRO diet had more firm faeces (P = 0.011) than control dogs and a higher faecal DM content in the first two weeks (P < 0.05). Feeding the PRO diet resulted in a decline in NH3 over four weeks (P = 0.05) and in faecal pH in the first two weeks (P < 0.05) alongside an increase in SCFA content (P = 0.044), mainly acetate (P = 0.024). Faecal lactate did not differ between diets (P > 0.10). Dogs fed the PRO diet showed a higher apparent digestibility of fat (P = 0.031) and NFE (P = 0.038) compared to control dogs. Dog food supplementation with Calsporin® at 1 × 109 CFU/kg improved faecal quality, enhanced fat and carbohydrate digestibility, and contributed to the gut health of dogs by reducing gut ammonia and increasing SCFA content.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
The Universe is permeated by hot, turbulent, magnetized plasmas. Turbulent plasma is a major constituent of active galactic nuclei, supernova remnants, the intergalactic and interstellar medium, the solar corona, the solar wind and the Earth’s magnetosphere, just to mention a few examples. Energy dissipation of turbulent fluctuations plays a key role in plasma heating and energization, yet we still do not understand the underlying physical mechanisms involved. THOR is a mission designed to answer the questions of how turbulent plasma is heated and particles accelerated, how the dissipated energy is partitioned and how dissipation operates in different regimes of turbulence. THOR is a single-spacecraft mission with an orbit tuned to maximize data return from regions in near-Earth space – magnetosheath, shock, foreshock and pristine solar wind – featuring different kinds of turbulence. Here we summarize the THOR proposal submitted on 15 January 2015 to the ‘Call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESAs Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4)’. THOR has been selected by European Space Agency (ESA) for the study phase.
Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections usually cause haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) equally in male and female children. This study investigated the localization of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in human brain and kidney tissues removed from forensic autopsy cases in Japan. A fatal case was used as a positive control in an outbreak of diarrhoeal disease caused by STEC O157:H7 in a kindergarten in Urawa in 1990. Positive immunodetection of Gb3 was significantly more frequent in female than in male distal and collecting renal tubules. To correlate this finding with a clinical outcome, a retrospective analysis of the predictors of renal failure in the 162 patients of two outbreaks in Japan was performed: one in Tochigi in 2002 and the other in Kagawa Prefecture in 2005. This study concludes renal failure, including HUS, was significantly associated with female sex, and the odds ratio was 4·06 compared to male patients in the two outbreaks. From 2006 to 2009 in Japan, the risk factor of HUS associated with STEC infection was analysed. The number of males and females and the proportion of females who developed HUS were calculated by age and year from 2006 to 2009. In 2006, 2007 and 2009 in adults aged >20 years, adult women were significantly more at risk of developing HUS in Japan.
Although Kawasaki disease (KD), which was first reported in the 1960s, is assumed to be infectious, its aetiological agent(s) remains unknown. We compared the geographical distribution of the force of infection and the super-annual periodicity of KD and seven other paediatric infectious diseases in Japan. The geographical distribution of the force of infection, which was estimated as the inverse of the mean patient age, was similar in KD and other paediatric viral infections. This similarity was due to the fact that the force of infection was determined largely by the total fertility rate. This finding suggests that KD shares a transmission route, i.e. sibling-to-sibling infection, with other paediatric infections. The super-annual periodicity, which is positively associated with the sum of an infectious disease's incubation period and infectious period, was much longer for KD and exanthema subitum than other paediatric infectious diseases. The virus for exanthema subitum is known to persist across the host's lifespan, which suggests that the aetiological agent for KD may also be capable of persistent infection. Taken together, these findings suggest that the aetiological agent for KD is transmitted through close contact and persists asymptomatically in most hosts.
To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD).
Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74 045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range (IQR) across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset (AOO) of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier AOO of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same AOO of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4 v. 46.0%; χ21 = 187.0, p < 0.001) and suicide ideation (19.5 v. 8.9%; χ21 = 71.6, p < 0.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high-income countries (68.8 v. 45.4%; χ21 = 108.8, p < 0.001) than low/middle-income countries (30.3 v. 20.6%; χ21 = 11.7, p < 0.001).
Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69.6–74.7%) is especially noteworthy. However, the fact that these proportions are not higher among respondents with 12-month than lifetime comorbidity means that temporal priority between lifetime anxiety disorders and MDD is not related to MDD persistence among people with anxious MDD. This, in turn, raises complex questions about the relative importance of temporally primary anxiety disorders as risk markers v. causal risk factors for subsequent MDD onset and persistence, including the possibility that anxiety disorders might primarily be risk markers for MDD onset and causal risk factors for MDD persistence.
Radiocarbon dates (n = 18) from three archaeological sites on Adak Island, Alaska, were analyzed to understand the marine reservoir offset. Samples of marine and terrestrial origins recovered from the same archaeological context were compiled in nine pairs. The mean ΔR value calculated for them totaled 545 ± 10 yr. This value can be regarded as a sound estimate of the marine reservoir offset in the central Aleutians.
We report crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films and improvement of thin film transistors (TFTs) characteristics using 2.45 GHz microwave heating assisted with carbon powders. Undoped 50-nm-thick a-Si films were formed on quartz substrates and heated by microwave irradiation for 2, 3, and 4 min. Raman scattering spectra revealed that the crystalline volume ratio increased to 0.42 for the 4-min heated sample. The dark and photo electrical conductivities measured by Air mass 1.5 at 100 mW/cm2 were 2.6x10-6 and 5.2x10-6 S/cm in the case of 4-min microwave heating followed by 1.3x106-Pa-H2O vapor heat treatment at 260°C for 3 h. N channel polycrystalline silicon TFTs characteristics were improved by the combination of microwave heating with high-pressure H2O vapor heat treatment. The threshold voltage decreased from 5.3 to 4.2 V and the effective carrier mobility increased from 18 to 25 cm2/Vs.
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
Structure-related ionization energy (IE) of vacuum-deposited titanyl-phthalocyanine (OTiPc) thin films was investigated by using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray diffractometry. Distinct molecular orientations (i.e. lying-flat and standing-up orientation) in different polymorphous (i.e. monoclinic β-phase and triclinic α-phase) were observed on a surface of polycrystalline (poly-) Au and octadecyltrichlorosilane-self assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM). For the two structures IE of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of OTiPc thin films altered significantly by 0.55 eV. The different IE was attributed to surface dipole potential and strong intermolecular interaction.
The finite-amplitude Rossby wave activity introduced recently by Nakamura and co-workers measures disturbances in terms of the areal displacement of potential vorticity (PV) from zonal symmetry and possesses exact Eliassen–Palm and non-acceleration theorems. This article investigates both theoretically and numerically how this wave activity, denoted , relates to previously defined quantities such as the generalized Lagrangian-mean (GLM) pseudomomentum density and the impulse-Casimir (IC) wave activity in the context of barotropic flow on a sphere. It is shown that under the barotropic constraint both the new and GLM formalisms derive the non-acceleration theorem from the conservation of Kelvin’s circulation, but the two differ in the way the circulation is partitioned into a mean flow and wave activity/pseudomomentum density. The new wave activity differs from the (negative of) GLM pseudomomentum density by the Stokes correction to angular momentum density, which is not negligible even in the small-amplitude limit. In contrast, converges to the IC wave activity and the familiar linear pseudomomentum density in the conservative small-amplitude limit, provided that their reference states are identical. Both the GLM pseudomomentum density and the zonal-mean IC wave activity may be cast in a flux conservation form in equivalent latitude, which may then be related to an exact Eliassen–Palm theorem through a gauge transformation. However, of the three wave activity forms, only satisfies an exact non-acceleration theorem for the zonal-mean zonal wind . A simple jet forcing experiment is used to examine the quantitative differences among these diagnostics. In this experiment, and the IC wave activity behave similarly in the domain average; however, they differ substantially in the local profiles, the former being more closely related to the flow modification. Despite their close conceptual relationship, the GLM pseudomomentum fails to capture the meridional structure of because the Stokes correction term dominates the former. This demonstrates various advantages of as a diagnostic of eddy–mean flow interaction.
Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. FACS and Western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.
Biaxially oriented polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films can be bonded directly by oxygen plasma irradiation and low temperature heat press around 100°C. The irradiated films were kept in the atmosphere for six years, yet they can be bonded tightly as well. Dry- and wet-peel tests indicate that two bonding elements can be suggested, hydrogen bonding and chemical bonding. The films are bonded by these two elements at lower temperatures, but by the pure chemical bonding at higher temperatures. FTIR results on the non-irradiated, irradiated and bonded samples indicate that OH and COOH groups are created at the surface, they are responsible for the hydrogen and chemical bondings. Dehydrated condensation reaction is proposed for the chemical bonding. It is briefly mentioned on two origins for the long lifetime of irradiated active surface.
We have investigated the revival of a shock wave by nuclear burning reactions at the central region of core-collapse supernovae. For this purpose, we performed hydrodynamic simulations of core collapse and bounce for 15 M⊙ progenitor model, using ZEUS-MP code in axi-symmetric coordinates. Our numerical code is equipped with a simple nuclear reaction network including 13 α nuclei form 4He to 56Ni, and accounting for energy feedback from nuclear reactions as well as neutrino heating and cooling. We found that the energy released by nuclear reactions is significantly helpful in accelerating shock waves and is able to produce energetic explosion even if the input neutrino luminosity is low.