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Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
The introduction of auxin herbicide weed control systems has led to increased occurrence of crop injury in susceptible soybeans and cotton. Off-target exposure to sublethal concentrations of dicamba can occur at varying growth stages, which may affect crop response. Field experiments were conducted in Mississippi in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to characterize cotton response to a sublethal concentration of dicamba equivalent to 1/16X the labeled rate. Weekly applications of dicamba at 35 g ae ha−1 were made to separate sets of replicated plots immediately following planting until 14 wk after emergence (WAE). Exposure to dicamba from 1 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 32% visible injury, and exposure from 7 to 10 WAE delayed crop maturity. Exposure from 8 to 10 and 13 WAE led to increased cotton height, while an 18% reduction in machine-harvested yield resulted from exposure at 6 WAE. Cotton exposure at 3 to 9 WAE reduced the seed cotton weight partitioned to position 1 fruiting sites, while exposure at 3 to 6 WAE also reduced yield in position 2 fruiting sites. Exposure at 2, 3, and 5 to 7 WAE increased the percent of yield partitioned to vegetative branches. An increase in percent of yield partitioned to plants with aborted terminals occurred following exposure from 3 to 7 WAE and corresponded with reciprocal decreases in yield partitioned to positional fruiting sites. Minimal effects were observed on fiber quality, except for decreases in fiber length uniformity resulting from exposure at 9 and 10 WAE.
Following stage 1 palliation, delayed sternal closure may be used as a technique to enhance thoracic compliance but may also prolong the length of stay and increase the risk of infection.
We reviewed all neonates undergoing stage 1 palliation at our institution between 2010 and 2017 to describe the effects of delayed sternal closure.
During the study period, 193 patients underwent stage 1 palliation, of whom 12 died before an attempt at sternal closure. Among the 25 patients who underwent primary sternal closure, 4 (16%) had sternal reopening within 24 hours. Among the 156 infants who underwent delayed sternal closure at 4 [3,6] days post-operatively, 11 (7.1%) had one or more failed attempts at sternal closure. Patients undergoing primary sternal closure had a shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and intensive care unit length of stay. Patients who failed delayed sternal closure had a longer aortic cross-clamp time (123±42 versus 99±35 minutes, p=0.029) and circulatory arrest time (39±28 versus 19±17 minutes, p=0.0009) than those who did not fail. Failure of delayed sternal closure was also closely associated with Technical Performance Score: 1.3% of patients with a score of 1 failed sternal closure compared with 18.9% of patients with a score of 3 (p=0.0028). Among the haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters studied, only superior caval vein saturation following sternal closure was different between patients who did and did not fail sternal closure (30±7 versus 42±10%, p=0.002). All patients who failed sternal closure did so within 24 hours owing to hypoxaemia, hypercarbia, or haemodynamic impairment.
When performed according to our current clinical practice, sternal closure causes transient and mild changes in haemodynamic and ventilatory parameters. Monitoring of SvO2 following sternal closure may permit early identification of patients at risk for failure.
The effect of transportation and lairage on the faecal shedding and post-slaughter contamination of carcasses with Escherichia coli O157 and O26 in young calves (4–7-day-old) was assessed in a cohort study at a regional calf-processing plant in the North Island of New Zealand, following 60 calves as cohorts from six dairy farms to slaughter. Multiple samples from each animal at pre-slaughter (recto-anal mucosal swab) and carcass at post-slaughter (sponge swab) were collected and screened using real-time PCR and culture isolation methods for the presence of E. coli O157 and O26 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) and non-STEC). Genotype analysis of E. coli O157 and O26 isolates provided little evidence of faecal–oral transmission of infection between calves during transportation and lairage. Increased cross-contamination of hides and carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 between co-transported calves was confirmed at pre-hide removal and post-evisceration stages but not at pre-boning (at the end of dressing prior to chilling), indicating that good hygiene practices and application of an approved intervention effectively controlled carcass contamination. This study was the first of its kind to assess the impact of transportation and lairage on the faecal carriage and post-harvest contamination of carcasses with E. coli O157 and O26 in very young calves.
The most extensively used methods to characterize and predict nutritive values of forages are fibre fractionation according to Van Soest (Van Soest et al., 1991), in situ degradability (Ørskov and McDonald, 1979) and gas production (Menke and Steingass, 1988; Pell and Schofield, 1993). The aim of the present experiment was to establish whether these methods could be used to characterize Mediterranean foods.
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
The Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE; Bronfman, Madigan, & Lyons-Ruth, 2009–2014; Bronfman, Parsons, & Lyons-Ruth, 1992–2004) is a widely used and well-validated measure for assessing disrupted forms of caregiver responsiveness within parent–child interactions. However, it requires evaluating approximately 150 behavioral items from videotape and extensive training to code, thus making its use impractical in most clinical contexts. Accordingly, the primary aim of the current study was to identify a reduced set of behavioral indicators most central to the AMBIANCE coding system using latent-trait item response theory (IRT) models. Observed mother–infant interaction data previously coded with the AMBIANCE was pooled from laboratories in both North America and Europe (N = 343). Using 2-parameter logistic IRT models, a reduced set of 45 AMBIANCE items was identified. Preliminary convergent and discriminant validity was evaluated in relation to classifications of maternal disrupted communication assigned using the full set of AMBIANCE indicators, to infant attachment disorganization, and to maternal sensitivity. The results supported the construct validity of the refined item set, opening the way for development of a brief screening measure for disrupted maternal communication. IRT models in clinical scale refinement and their potential for bridging clinical and research objectives in developmental psychopathology are discussed.
The high contribution of postruminal starch digestion (>50%) to total tract starch digestion on certain energy dense diets (Mills et al. 1999) demands that limitations to small intestinal starch digestion are identified. Therefore, a dynamic mechanistic model of the small intestine was constructed and evaluated against published experimental data for abomasal carbohydrate infusions in the dairy cow. The mechanistic structure of the model allowed the current biological knowledge to be integrated into a system capable of identifying restrictions to dietary energy recovery from postruminal starch delivery.
Previous attempts to apply statistical models, which correlate nutrient intake with methane production, have been of limited value where predictions are obtained for nutrient intakes and diet types outside those used in model construction. Dynamic mechanistic models have proved more suitable for extrapolation, but they remain computationally expensive and are not applied easily in practical situations. The first objective of this research focussed on employing conventional techniques to generate statistical models of methane production appropriate to UK dairy systems. The second objective was to evaluate these models and a model published previously using both UK and North American datasets. Thirdly, non-linear models were considered as alternatives to the conventional linear regressions. The UK calorimetry data used to construct the linear models were also used to develop the three non-linear alternatives that were all of modified Mitscherlich (monomolecular) form.
Dietary intervention to reduce methane emissions from lactating dairy cattle is both environmentally and nutritionally desirable due to the importance of methane as a causative agent in global warming and as a significant loss of feed energy. This investigation involved the development of a dynamic mechanistic model of whole rumen function (Dijkstra et al. 1992), with the objective to simulate whole-animal methane emissions for a range of dietary inputs.
Agriculture in general, and dairy production in particular, has been identified as one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental pollutants such as nitrogen (N) (as ammonia, N and Nitrous oxides, and N leaching). Availability of cheap sources of protein has led to increased consumption of protein supplements. However, the protein is often utilised inefficiently and excess nitrogen is excreted particularly in urine, which has much more potential to pollute the environment. One of the obvious ways of reducing pollution is by evaluating the pollution potential of diets and formulating more balanced rations. A few technical mathematical models have been published but rarely do they consider more than one pollutant at a time. The objective of the present study was to develop a decision support system (DSS) by first integrating mechanistic models of N (Kebreab et al., 2002) and methane (Mills et al., 2001) with a rumen model (Dijkstra, 1994) and then develop a graphical user interface (GUI) for ease of use and analysis of outputs.
We present NH3 and H64α+H63α VLA observations of the Radio Arc region, including the M0.20 – 0.033 and G0.10 – 0.08 molecular clouds. These observations suggest the two velocity components of M0.20 – 0.033 are physically connected in the south. Additional ATCA observations suggest this connection is due to an expanding shell in the molecular gas, with the centroid located near the Quintuplet cluster. The G0.10 – 0.08 molecular cloud has little radio continuum, strong molecular emission, and abundant CH3OH masers, similar to a nearby molecular cloud with no star formation: M0.25+0.01. These features detected in G0.10 – 0.08 suggest dense molecular gas with no signs of current star formation.
The inner few hundred parsecs of the Milky Way, the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ), is our closest laboratory for understanding star formation in the extreme environments (hot, dense, turbulent gas) that once dominated the universe. We present an update on the first large-area survey to expose the sites of star formation across the CMZ at high-resolution in submillimeter wavelengths: the CMZoom survey with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). We identify the locations of dense cores and search for signatures of embedded star formation. CMZoom is a three-year survey in its final year and is mapping out the highest column density regions of the CMZ in dust continuum and a variety of spectral lines around 1.3 mm. CMZoom combines SMA compact and subcompact configurations with single-dish data from BGPS and the APEX telescope, achieving an angular resolution of about 4″ (0.2 pc) and good image fidelity up to large spatial scales.
The physico-chemical and interfacial properties of fat emulsions influence lipid digestion and may affect postprandial responses. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of the modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion by cross-linking on postprandial metabolic and appetite responses. A total of fifteen healthy individuals (26·5 (sem 6·9) years and BMI 21·9 (sem 2·0) kg/m2) participated in a cross-over design experiment in which they consumed two isoenergetic (1924 kJ (460 kcal)) and isovolumic (250 g) emulsions stabilised with either sodium caseinate (Cas) or transglutaminase-cross-linked sodium caseinate (Cas-TG) in a randomised order. Blood samples were collected from the individuals at baseline and for 6 h postprandially for the determination of serum TAG and plasma NEFA, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose and insulin responses. Appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales. Postprandial TAG and NEFA responses and gastric emptying (GE) rates were comparable between the emulsions. CCK increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05), while GLP-1 responses did not differ between the two test emulsions. Glucose and insulin profiles were lower after consuming Cas-TG than after consuming Cas (P< 0·05). The overall insulin, glucose and CCK responses, expressed as areas above/under the curve, did not differ significantly between the Cas and Cas-TG meal conditions. Satiety ratings were reduced and hunger, desire to eat and thirst ratings increased more after the ingestion of Cas-TG than after the ingestion of Cas (P< 0·05). The present results suggest that even a subtle structural modification of the interfacial layer of a fat emulsion can alter the early postprandial profiles of glucose, insulin, CCK, appetite and satiety through decreased protein digestion without affecting significantly on GE or overall lipid digestion.
To report on the prevalence and incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) from 2009 to 2013 among Veterans Healthcare Administration patients
A retrospective descriptive analysis of data extracted from a large electronic medical record (EMR) database
Data were acquired from VHA healthcare records from 2009 to 2013 that included outpatient clinical visits, long-term care, and hospitalized care as well as pharmacy and laboratory information.
In 2009, there were 10,207 CDI episodes, and in 2013, there were 12,143 CDI episodes, an increase of 19.0%. The overall CDI rate increased by 8.4% from 193 episodes per 100,000 patient years in 2009 to 209 episodes per 100,000 patient years in 2013. Of the CDI episodes identified in 2009, 58% were identified during a hospitalization, and 42% were identified in an outpatient setting. In 2013, 44% of the CDI episodes were identified in an outpatient setting.
This is one of the largest studies that has utilized timely EMR data to describe the current CDI epidemiology at the VHA. Despite an aging population with greater burden of comorbidity than the general US population, our data show that VHA CDI rates stabilized between 2011 and 2013 following increases likely attributable to the introduction of the more sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). The findings in this report will help establish an accurate benchmark against which both current and future VA CDI prevention initiatives can be measured.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(9):1038–1045
New low aluminium high niobium TiAl alloys exhibit a nano scale modulated microstructure consisting of lamellae with a tweed substructure. These tweed like appearing lamellae are a modulated arrangement of at least two phases. One constituent of the crystallographic modulation in the lamellae is an orthorhombic phase, which is closely related to both the hexagonal α2-Ti3Al phase and the cubic B2 ordered βo-TiAl phase.
In this study the nature and formation of this orthorhombic phase has been investigated by high-energy X-ray diffraction.
Measurements have shown that the newly formed orthorhombic phase is structurally comparable to the O phase (Ti2AlNb). It forms in the temperature range of 550 °C to 670 °C from the α2 phase by small atomic displacements and chemical reordering. The in situ experiments yielded information about the thermal stability of the orthorhombic phase. After dissolving at temperatures above 700 °C the phase can be re-precipitated by annealing within the temperature range of formation.
We present a radio survey of molecules in a sample of Galactic center molecular clouds, including M0.25 + 0.01, the clouds near Sgr A, and Sgr B2. The molecules detected are primarily NH3 and HC3N; in Sgr B2-N we also detect non-metastable NH3, vibrationally-excited HC3N, torsionally-excited CH3OH, and numerous isotopologues of these species. 36 GHz Class I CH3OH masers are ubiquitous in these fields, and in several cases are associated with new NH3 (3,3) maser candidates. We also find that NH3 and HC3N are depleted or absent toward several of the highest dust column density peaks identified in submillimeter observations, which are associated with water masers and are thus likely in the early stages of star formation.
The results of a number of tympanic membrane perforation closure techniques have been reported. However, relatively little has been published on the ‘drum sandwich’ technique.
Retrospective chart review of 123 patients undergoing type one tympanoplasty, performed by one surgeon using the drum sandwich technique.
Ninety-two per cent of perforations were successfully closed, and 87 per cent of patients had healed ears and were free from aural discharge 6 weeks following surgery. Post-operative hearing data were only available for 81 ears. Of these, 58 per cent had closure of the air–bone gap to within 10 dB. The mean hearing gain for the group was 10.6 dB.
The drum sandwich technique produces rapid healing of the ear with acceptable hearing outcomes. Drum closure rates are comparable with those reported for other techniques.
The main aim of tympanic membrane repair is the elimination of chronic or intermittent aural discharge. Hearing improvement may or may not occur following a technically successful operation.
This study entailed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from 203 operations that resulted in an intact tympanic membrane 6 months after surgery.
Complete hearing data were available for 169 operations on 160 patients. Of these, 53 per cent resulted in closure of the air–bone gap to within 10 dB, and 54 per cent of cases had post-operative hearing thresholds of at least 30 dB. The mean hearing change after surgery was +8.3 dB. Multiple regression analysis indicated that hearing improvement was more likely in large compared with small perforations. Smaller hearing gains occurred in ears with erosion of the stapes arch and/or fixation of the stapes, as well as in those with active discharge at the time of surgery and in revision cases.
Greater hearing improvement can be expected following successful repair of perforations involving more than 50 per cent of the drum area. Poorer results are likely to occur in ears with additional middle-ear pathology and in revision cases.
The crystal structure of deliensite, Fe[(UO2)2(SO4)2(OH)2](H2O)7, was solved by direct methods and refined to R1 = 6.24% for 5211 unique observed reflections [Iobs > 3σ(I)], on a crystal that was found to consist of rotational and inversion (merohedral) twins, from Jeroným mine, Abertamy in the Czech Republic. The presence of four twin domains was taken into account in the refinement. The structure is orthorhombic, space group Pnn2, with unit-cell parameters a = 15.8514(9), b = 16.2478(7), c = 6.8943(3) Å, V = 1775.6(1) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure of deliensite contains uranyl-sulfate sheets with a phosphuranylite topology, consisting of dimers of edge-sharing uranyl pentagonal bipyramids linked by corner-sharing with sulfate tetrahedra. The sheets lie in the (100) plane and are decorated by [Fe2+O(H2O)5] octahedra; two weakly bonded H2O molecules are present in the interlayer. The [Fe2+O(H2O)5] octahedron is linked directly to the sheet via the uranyl oxygen atom. Adjacent sheets are linked by hydrogen bonds only. The sheet topology and geometrical isomerism is discussed and a comparison of the composition obtained from electron-probe microanalysis, powder-diffraction data, Raman and infrared spectra of deliensite samples from Mas d'Alary, Lodève, France; L'Ecarpière mine, Gétigné, France; and several localities at Jáchymov, Western Bohemia, Czech Republic is made.