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This book integrates philosophy of science, data acquisition methods, and statistical modeling techniques to present readers with a forward-thinking perspective on clinical science. It reviews modern research practices in clinical psychology that support the goals of psychological science, study designs that promote good research, and quantitative methods that can test specific scientific questions. It covers new themes in research including intensive longitudinal designs, neurobiology, developmental psychopathology, and advanced computational methods such as machine learning. Core chapters examine significant statistical topics, for example missing data, causality, meta-analysis, latent variable analysis, and dyadic data analysis. A balanced overview of observational and experimental designs is also supplied, including preclinical research and intervention science. This is a foundational resource that supports the methodological training of the current and future generations of clinical psychological scientists.
This paper presents a review of the current status of photodiode array systems adapted for Energy Dispersive EXAFS (EDE) using a synchrotron radiation source. The performance of a conventional Reticon PDA is compared with that of a hybrid CCD. The specification of a new detector system for EDE is discussed in the light of experience gained with current linear detectors.
Recent cases of acute kidney injury due to Seoul hantavirus infection from exposure to wild or pet fancy rats suggest this infection is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We conducted a seroprevalence study in England to estimate cumulative exposure in at-risk groups with contact with domesticated and wild rats to assess risk and inform public health advice. From October 2013 to June 2014, 844 individual blood samples were collected. Hantavirus seroprevalence amongst the pet fancy rat owner group was 34.1% (95% CI 23·9–45·7%) compared with 3·3% (95% CI 1·6–6·0) in a baseline control group, 2·4% in those with occupational exposure to pet fancy rats (95% CI 0·6–5·9) and 1·7% with occupational exposure to wild rats (95% CI 0·2–5·9). Variation in seroprevalence across groups with different exposure suggests that occupational exposure to pet and wild rats carries a very low risk, if any. However incidence of hantavirus infection among pet fancy rat owners/breeders, whether asymptomatic, undiagnosed mild viral illness or more severe disease may be very common and public health advice needs to be targeted to this at-risk group.
Fronto-limbic structural brain abnormalities have been reported in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), but findings in individuals at increased genetic risk of developing BD have been inconsistent. We conducted a study in adolescents and young adults (12–30 years) comparing measures of fronto-limbic cortical and subcortical brain structure between individuals at increased familial risk of BD (at risk; AR), subjects with BD and controls (CON). We separately examined cortical volume, thickness and surface area as these have distinct neurodevelopmental origins and thus may reflect differential effects of genetic risk.
We compared fronto-limbic measures of grey and white matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area in 72 unaffected-risk individuals with at least one first-degree relative with bipolar disorder (AR), 38 BD subjects and 72 participants with no family history of mental illness (CON).
The AR group had significantly reduced cortical thickness in the left pars orbitalis of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) compared with the CON group, and significantly increased left parahippocampal gyral volume compared with those with BD.
The finding of reduced cortical thickness of the left pars orbitalis in AR subjects is consistent with other evidence supporting the IFG as a key region associated with genetic liability for BD. The greater volume of the left parahippocampal gyrus in those at high risk is in line with some prior reports of regional increases in grey matter volume in at-risk subjects. Assessing multiple complementary morphometric measures may assist in the better understanding of abnormal developmental processes in BD.
The Cosmic Background Explorer, launched November 18, 1989, has nearly completed its first full mapping of the sky with all three of its instruments: a Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) covering 0.1 to 10 mm, a set of Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) operating at 3.3, 5.7, and 9.6 mm, and a Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) spanning 1 to 300 µm in ten bands. A preliminary map of the sky derived from DIRBE data is presented. Initial cosmological implications include: a limit on the Comptonization y parameter of 10−3, on the chemical potential μ parameter of 10−2, a strong limit on the existence of a hot smooth intergalactic medium, and a confirmation that the dipole anisotropy has the spectrum expected from a Doppler shift of a blackbody. There are no significant anisotropies in the microwave sky detected, other than from our own galaxy and a cosθ dipole anisotropy whose amplitude and direction agree with previous data. At shorter wavelengths, the sky spectrum and anisotropies are dominated by emission from ‘local’ sources of emission within our Galaxy and Solar System. Preliminary comparison of IRAS and DIRBE sky brightnesses toward the ecliptic poles shows the IRAS values to be significantly higher than found by DIRBE at 100 μm. We suggest the presence of gain and zero-point errors in the IRAS total brightness data. The spacecraft, instrument designs, and data reduction methods are described.
The ESRO satellite COS-B carries one single experiment aiming at the measurement of arrival direction and energy of celestial gamma rays with energies between 25 MeV and 10 GeV. The experiment is conventional in design and consists of a veto counter, a wire spark chamber, a telescope and an energy calorimeter.
The energy measurement is obtained by a CsI scintillation crystal of 4.7 radiation length thickness. The expected energy resolution at 100 MeV is 50% FWHM. The other detector elements are designed as to cause the least possible degradation of the energy measurement.
The possibilities for the detection of a small contribution of π -origin gamma rays in the presence of a power-law type background spectrum will be discussed.
The Early Iron Age enclosures and associated sites on Sutton Common on the western edge of the Humberhead Levels contain an exceptional variety of archaeological data of importance not only to the region but for the study of later prehistory in the British Isles. Few other later prehistoric British sites outside the East Anglian fens and the Somerset Levels have thus far produced the quantity and quality of organically preserved archaeological materials that have been found, despite the small scale of the investigations to date. The excavations have provided an opportunity to integrate a variety of environmental analyses, of wood, pollen, beetles, waterlogged and carbonised plant remains, and of soil micromorphology, to address archaeological questions about the character, use, and environment of this Early Iron Age marsh fort. The site is comprised of a timber palisaded enclosure and a succeeding multivallate enclosure linked to a smaller enclosure by a timber alignment across a palaeochannel, with associated finds ranging in date from the Middle Bronze Age to the Roman and medieval periods. Among the four adjacent archaeological sites is an Early Mesolithic occupation site, also with organic preservation, and there is a Late Neolithic site beneath the large enclosure. Desiccation throughout the common is leading to the damage and loss of wooden and organic remains. It is hoped that the publication of these results, of investigations between 1987 and 1993, will lead to a fuller investigation taking place.
We carried out an extensive photometric and spectroscopic investigation of the SPB binary, HD 25558 (see Fig. 1 for the time and geographic distribution of the observations). The ~2000 spectra obtained at 13 observatories during 5 observing seasons, the ground-based multi-colour light curves and the photometric data from the MOST satellite revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with a very long orbital period of about 9 years. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and have found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both components show line-profile variations consistent with stellar pulsations. Altogether, 11 independent frequencies and one harmonic frequency were identified in the data. The observational data do not allow the inference of a reliable orbital solution, thus, disentangling cannot be performed on the spectra. Since the lines of the two components are never completely separated, the analysis is very complicated. Nevertheless, pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the cross-correlated line profiles was successful, and we were able to attribute all the frequencies to the primary or secondary component. Spectroscopic and photometric mode-identification was also performed for several of these frequencies of both binary components. The spectroscopic mode-identification results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. While the primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d rotation period, seen at ~60° inclination, the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d rotation period, and is seen at ~20° inclination. Our spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field was detected in the primary.
The detailed analysis and results of this study will be published elsewhere.
We describe an investigation of 3 postoperative Gordonia bronchialis sternal infections. A nurse anesthetist was identified as the source of the outbreak, her scrubs likely becoming contaminated by her home washing machine. The outbreak ended after disposal of the implicated washing machine. Domestic laundering of surgical scrubs may need reevaluation.
Genetic studies in adults indicate that genes influencing the personality trait of neuroticism account for substantial genetic variance in anxiety and depression and in somatic health. Here, we examine for the first time the factors underlying the relationship between neuroticism and anxiety/depressive and somatic symptoms during adolescence.
The Somatic and Psychological Health Report (SPHERE) assessed symptoms of anxiety/depression (PSYCH-14) and somatic distress (SOMA-10) in 2459 adolescent and young adult twins [1168 complete pairs (35.4% monozygotic, 53% female)] aged 12–25 years (mean=15.5±2.9). Differences between boys and girls across adolescence were explored for neuroticism, SPHERE-34, and the subscales PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10. Trivariate analyses partitioned sources of covariance in neuroticism, PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10.
Girls scored higher than boys on both neuroticism and SPHERE, with SPHERE scores for girls increasing slightly over time, whereas scores for boys decreased or were unchanged. Neuroticism and SPHERE scores were strongly influenced by genetic factors [heritability (h2)=40–52%]. A common genetic source influenced neuroticism, PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10 (impacting PSYCH-14 more than SOMA-10). A further genetic source, independent of neuroticism, accounted for covariation specific to PSYCH-14 and SOMA-10. Environmental influences were largely specific to each measure.
In adolescence, genetic risk factors indexed by neuroticism contribute substantially to anxiety/depression and, to a lesser extent, perceived somatic health. Additional genetic covariation between anxiety/depressive and somatic symptoms, independent of neuroticism, had greatest influence on somatic distress, where it was equal in influence to the factor shared with neuroticism.
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is prevalent worldwide and can infect a remarkably wide range of hosts despite felids being the only definitive host. As cats play a major role in transmission to secondary mammalian hosts, the interaction between cats and these hosts should be a major factor determining final prevalence in the secondary host. This study investigates the prevalence of T. gondii in a natural population of Apodemus sylvaticus collected from an area with low cat density (<2·5 cats/km2). A surprisingly high prevalence of 40·78% (95% CI: 34·07%–47·79%) was observed despite this. A comparable level of prevalence was observed in a previously published study using the same approaches where a prevalence of 59% (95% CI: 50·13%–67·87%) was observed in a natural population of Mus domesticus from an area with high cat density (>500 cats/km2). Detection of infected foetuses from pregnant dams in both populations suggests that congenital transmission may enable persistence of infection in the absence of cats. The prevalences of the related parasite, Neospora caninum were found to be low in both populations (A. sylvaticus: 3·39% (95% CI: 0·12%–6·66%); M. domesticus: 3·08% (95% CI: 0·11%–6·05%)). These results suggest that cat density may have a lower than expected effect on final prevalence in these ecosystems.
The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the level of residual damage resulting from nitrogen and boron implants after different anneal processes are investigated using the Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (PAS) technique. It is shown that after implantation there is a substantial defect concentration significantly below the range of the implants. However such damage is almost completely recovered after anneal in contrast with the damage close to the implant range point. Such residual damage has a strong effect on the electrical characteristics of double implanted bipolar transistors - principally though reduction in carrier mobility and lifetime. It is shown that the precise implant and anneal conditions play a strong role in the level of such damage and the subsequent electrical performance of bipolar devices.
A simple ion-implanted bipolar transistor technology in 4H-SiC is presented. Suitable for both high-voltage vertical devices and lateral high-temperature transistors (for circuit applications), the technology is based on an implanted boron p-well with nitrogen and boron (or aluminium) implanted n+ and p+ regions respectively. The effects of base doping and carrier lifetime on device performance have been studied using TCAD techniques. It is shown that understanding the strong variation of carrier concentration with temperature (due to deep activation levels) and applied field (so-called field ionization) is critical in device design optimisation. The effects of post-implant anneal conditions on the physical and electrical characteristics of the junctions are investigated. It is shown that annealing can remove much of the damage induced by high dose nitrogen implantation but that residual damage is still present. The electrical characteristics of simple BJT transistors with breakdown voltages in excess of 1000V and common-emitter gains of ∼2 is related to the level of such residual damage.
Simple ionic models are applied to YBa2 Cu3 O7. It is found that additional forces are needed to constrain the barium and the planar coordinated copper atoms to be stable in their observed positions. These additional forces are compared to forces calculated from first principles. It is observed that the restoring forces are small for motion of the “in chain” oxygen atoms perpendicular to the chains.
The microstructures of rapidly solidified Type 304 stainless steel powders produced by vacuum gas (VGA) and centrifugal atomization (CA) have been examined. The solidification morphology and phase distribution have been characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, and the relative amounts of ferrite and austenite have been quantified using x-ray diffraction. Most CA powder particles contain both fcc and bcc phases, with the bcc phase predominating at small particle sizes and the fcc phase at large particle sizes. The VGA powder generally contains less ferrite, with very little dependence on the particle size. The ferrite was metastable and transforms to austenite on annealing at 900°C.
A review is presented of recent neutron diffraction studies of silicate and borate glasses, using a combination of steady-state reactor and pulsed neutron sources. The samples studied include both single component glasses and binary systems, consisting of a network modifier plus a network former, and the data have been extended to high magnitudes of the scattering vector, Q, to achieve high real-space resolution. Peak fitting techniques are employed to extract the detailed geometry of the basic structural units and to investigate the distortions caused by the introduction of network modifiers. The data are compared to various structural models and conclusions are drawn not only with regard to the validity of the structural models themselves but also concerning the environment of the network modifying cations.
It is demonstrated that GaN quantum dots with the wurtzite structure grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AIN exhibit optical properties which, depending on the size of the dots, may be dominated by piezoelectric effects. In “large” quantum dots with an average height and diameter of 4.1 and 17 nm, respectively, the photoluminescence peak is centered at 2.95 eV, nearly 0.5 eV below the bulk GaN bandgap, which is assigned to a piezoelectric field of 5.5 MV/cm present in the dots. The decay time of the photoluminescence was also measured. A comparison is carried out with theoretical calculation of the radiative lifetime.
As the trend for miniaturisation in the microelectronics field continues, metallisation connecting components has smaller and smaller dimensions, especially width and thickness. The mechanical properties of the deposited metal are very different from those of the bulk material and it is important to evaluate them accurately if the reliability of the metallisation is to be optimised. The assessment of the mechanical properties of thin aluminium metallisation is possible by nanoindentation but to extract properties useful for lifetime prediction such as yield stress or creep relaxation behaviour additional modelling is necessary using finite elements analysis (FEA). In this study evaporated aluminium layers from 50nm to 600nm thick on (100) silicon were indented to various depths. Proportional loading was used to minimise the effect of creep. The loading curves were then simulated by FEA and the results compared to identify the yield properties of the coating. Modelling data for thicker samples closely follows experimental data but for thinner coatings there is a considerable gradient in properties through the film thickness.