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To evaluate mastoid pneumatisation and facial canal dimensions.
In this retrospective study, 169 multidetector computed tomography scans of temporal bone were reviewed. Facial canal dimensions were evaluated at the labyrinthine, tympanic and mastoid segments using axial and coronal multidetector computed tomography scans of temporal bone. Mastoid pneumatisation and facial canal dehiscence were evaluated. Facial canal dehiscence was measured if it was found to be present.
This study showed that facial canal dimensions decreased in pneumatised mastoids. Facial canal dimensions in females were smaller than in males. Facial canal dehiscence was detected in 5.9 per cent and 6.5 per cent of the patients on the right and left sides, respectively. No correlations were found between facial canal dehiscence and mastoid pneumatisation. The length of dehiscence was 1.92 ± 0.44 mm (range, 0.86–2.51 mm) on the left side. In older subjects, left facial canal dehiscence was detected more, and the length of the dehiscence increased.
This study concluded that during surgery, facial canal dehiscence should be kept in mind in order to avoid complications.
To investigate olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth in patients with Behçet's disease, using magnetic resonance imaging.
Cranial magnetic resonance imaging scans of 27 adults with Behçet's disease (10 males and 17 females) and 27 healthy controls were examined. Olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth were measured on coronal, T2-weighted, spectral pre-saturation with inversion recovery sequences.
Bilateral olfactory bulb volume and right-sided olfactory sulcus depth were significantly lower in the Behçet's disease group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Left-sided olfactory sulcus depth increased with Behçet's disease duration. In both groups, olfactory bulb volume was significantly higher in the left than the right side. There were no gender differences for olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth. Positive correlations were determined between right- and left-sided olfactory bulb volume values and between right- and left-sided olfactory sulcus depth values.
Behçet's disease may decrease olfactory functions, related to lower olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sulcus depth. The affected vascular system and possibly damaged neural system, nasal mucosal lesions, and prolonged nasal mucociliary clearance time may cause olfactory dysfunction. Patient follow up is recommended, with magnetic resonance imaging examinations of the olfactory system if necessary.
The pyriform aperture comprises the central area of facial bone structure. It is formed by the free corners of the nasal bone and the frontal processes of the maxillae, which articulate with each other at the nasomaxillary suture lines. Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis might be linked to various craniofacial problems. This review presents all aspects of pyriform aperture stenosis and enlargement.
A literature search was conducted. Pyriform aperture definition, nasal development, congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis and pyriform aperture enlargement were reviewed.
One of the most common abnormalities is holoprosencephaly, which is a midline developmental deficiency that may also be present in combination with facial clefting. The aetiology of nasal pyriform aperture stenosis remains unclear. When diagnosed, the choice of treatment is between non-surgical and operative methods, depending on the seriousness of the problem. Provided the sufferer can maintain a secure air passage with the help of specialised medical procedures and respiratory tract adjuvants, operative therapy may be delayed.
The operative outcomes are extremely good, and the prognosis relies mainly on coexisting neural and endocrine problems. This paper evaluates the nasal pyriform aperture in detail.
This review examined the efficacy of intranasal corticosteroids for improving adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
The related literature was searched using PubMed and Proquest Central databases.
Adenotonsillar hypertrophy causes mouth breathing, nasal congestion, hyponasal speech, snoring, obstructive sleep apnoea, chronic sinusitis and recurrent otitis media. Adenoidal hypertrophy results in the obstruction of nasal passages and Eustachian tubes, and blocks the clearance of nasal mucus. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and obstructive sleep apnoea are associated with increased expression of various mediators of inflammatory responses in the tonsils, and respond to anti-inflammatory agents such as corticosteroids. Topical nasal steroids most likely affect the anatomical component by decreasing inspiratory upper airway resistance at the nasal, adenoidal or tonsillar levels. Corticosteroids, by their lympholytic or anti-inflammatory effects, might reduce adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Intranasal corticosteroids reduce cellular proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a tonsil and adenoid mixed-cell culture system.
Intranasal corticosteroids have been used in adenoidal hypertrophy and adenotonsillar hypertrophy patients, decreasing rates of surgery for adenotonsillar hypertrophy.
This study aimed to explore the effects of curcumin on experimental allergic rhinitis in rats.
Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups: a control group; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced and no treatment given; a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with azelastine hydrochloride on days 21–28; and a group in which allergic rhinitis was induced followed by treatment with curcumin on days 21–28. Allergy symptoms and histopathological features of the nasal mucosa were examined.
The sneezing and nasal congestion scores were higher in the azelastine and curcumin treatment groups than in the control group. Histopathological examination showed focal goblet cell metaplasia on the epithelial surface in the azelastine group. In the curcumin group, there was a decrease in goblet cell metaplasia in the epithelium, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and vascular proliferation in the lamina propria.
Curcumin is an effective treatment for experimentally induced allergic rhinitis in rats.
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