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Hemiwicking refers to the spreading of a liquid on a rough hydrophilic surface driven by capillarity. Here, we construct scaling laws to predict the velocity of hemiwicking on a rough substrate and experimentally corroborate them with various arrangements and dimensions of micropillar arrays. At the macroscopic scale, where the wetting front appears parallel to the free surface of the reservoir, the wicking distance is shown to grow diffusively, i.e. like
being time. We show that our model is consistent with pillar arrays of a wide range of pitch-to-height ratios, either square or skewed. At the microscopic scale, where the meniscus extension from individual pillars at the wetting front is considered, the extension distance begins to grow like
but the spreading slows down to behave like
when the meniscus is far from the pillar. Our microscopic flow modelling allows us to find pillar spacing conditions under which the assumption of densely spaced pillars is valid.
Extreme wetting properties of solids, either superhydrophobic or superhydrophilic, provide versatile methods to achieve unusual liquid deposit morphologies, such as liquid pearls or polygonal films. Here we report the dynamics of liquid drops that impact on solid surfaces where the extreme wetting properties are coupled in such a way that a superhydrophilic annulus is patterned on a superhydrophobic background. The drop that initially spreads on the inner superhydrophobic region is arrested by the hydrophilic annulus. The liquid deposit gets destabilized because of the strong water repellence of the inner region, exhibiting the burst and disengagement of the liquid film. This process leads to the formation of a liquid ring defined by the annulus pattern, which has practical implications in rapid printing of functional liquids. We visualize such drop dynamics with a high-speed camera and characterize their salient features by combining experimental measurements and theoretical considerations.
When a drop is deposited on a superhydrophilic micropillar array, the upper part of the drop (referred to as the bulk) collapses while the bottom part penetrates into the gaps of the array, forming a fringe film. Here we quantify the early stage dynamics of this process using a combination of experiment and theory. We show that the circular front of the fringe film spreads like t1/2, t being time, when coupled to the bulk flow. However, the film is found to advance like t1/3 through faceted zippering in the absence of the bulk. We then show that the spreading of the bulk and the entire drop footprint follows a power law (t1/4) that is different from Washburn's law. This work can be a starting point to completely understand the spreading of liquids on superhydrophilic surfaces and opens questions specific to superwetting behaviour including the criteria to determine whether the fringe film will expand through lateral zipping or advance radially outwards.
We studied on the thermal annealing effect on the residual stress and the mechanical properties in thin compressive stressed diamond-like carbon film on Si substrate. Annealing experiments were carried out with Rapid Thermal Procedure system at 200–600 °C, and the stress change with annealing temperature was investigated by in-situ stress measurement system. The apparent stress reduction occurred with minimal structure changes. In order to measure the change of chemical structure of diamond-like carbon film by annealing, we used Raman spectrometer. The adhesion deterioration in interface has been detected as annealing temperature increased. In the compressive stressed DLC film, we observed the dramatic evolution of interface delamination at certain high temperature using in-situ heating stage built in Environment SEM. The quantitative change of adhesion affected by annealing process was also measured with scratch testing. For exploring the interface structure affected by the thermal annealing process at high temperature, the cross section of annealed film has been observed with HR TEM.
The role of imperfections on the initiation and propagation of interface delaminations in compressed thin films has been analyzed using experiments with diamond-like carbon (DLC) films deposited onto glass substrates. The surface topologies and interface separations have been characterized by using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) imaging system. The lengths and amplitudes of numerous imperfections have been measured by AFM and the interface separations characterized on cross sections made with the FIB. Chemical analysis of several sites, performed using Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), has revealed the origin of the imperfections. The incidence of buckles has been correlated with the imperfection length.
The topology of telephone cord buckles that form beneath compressed diamond-like carbon films (DLC) on glass substrates has been characterized with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and with the Focused Ion Beam (FIB). Using AFM with 2nm resolution, the wavelength and amplitude of the buckles and their profiles have been measured. It has been found that, within each wavelength, the profile has symmetric and asymmetric segments. These changes have been related to differences in local mode mixity around the periphery of each repeat unit along the buckle, resulting in a fundamental rationale for the factors governing the wavelength. Sections made through various segments of the buckle by using the FIB imaging system result in local changes in the shape and size of the buckles that provide further insight into the buckle propagation criterion.
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