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A comparative study was performed about the plan parameters and quality indices between volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for the treatment of high-risk prostate cancer patients. The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the two methods of external beam radiotherapy IMRT and VMAT in terms of plan quality and efficacy.
Material and method:
Fifteen high-risk prostate patients were planned for radiotherapy using 6 MV photon. Three dose levels were contoured having Planning Tumour Volume 1 (PTV1 = 48 Gy), Planning Tumour Volume 2 (PTV2 = 57.6 Gy) and Planning Tumour Volume 3 (PTV3 = 60 Gy). Setup margins were given using the CHIP trial method. The prescribed PTV3 dose was 60 Gy in 20 fractions which is biologically equivalent to 74 Gy in 37 fractions using α/β = 3. In case of IMRT, seven fixed beam angles 30, 60, 105, 180, 255, 300 and 330 were used and the dose was optimised using the sliding window method. In case of rapid arc technique, one or two full arcs were used for dose optimisation while keeping all the dose constraints and other planning parameters same used in IMRT. The plan evaluation parameters and Organ at risks (OARs) doses were calculated using a dose volume histogram (DVH).
The average D2, D5, D95 and PTVmean for PTV3 were 61.22, 61.13, 58.12, 60.00 Gy and 62.41 62.24 59.53 61.12 Gy for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. The averages V60 for bladder and V30 for rectum were 22.81, 25 and 67, 65% for IMRT and VMAT, respectively. The average homogeneity index (HI), conformity index (CI) and gradient index (GI) were 1.04, 1.4833, 14.79 and 1.04, 1.704, 7.89 for IMRT and VMAT, respectively.
VMAT takes less dose-delivery time and lesser number of monitoring units than IMRT, thus it compensates the intrafractional movements during dose delivery. The Dose GI in VMAT was much better than IMRT. This indicates sharper dose fall off near the normal tissue. No other major differences were observed in terms of plan evaluation parameters between IMRT and VMAT techniques. So, we conclude that VMAT technique is more efficient than IMRT in terms of plan quality and dose delivery.
The main objective of this research work is to compare the dosimertic effect on lower and upper oesophagus cancer treatment using 3D conformal radiotherapy as well as to evaluate the doses administered to the organs at risk.
Materials and methods
In this study, a cohort of 30 oesophageal cancer patients between the ages of 45 and 67 years registered during March 2017 to February 2018 was considered. These patients were treated through 3D conformal radiotherapy using four-field technique. Beam energy of 15 MV from Varian DHX linear accelerator was used. The given 30 patients were divided into two groups. The 1st group of 15 patients with upper oesophagus cancer was prescribed 5000 cGy doses, and the 2nd group of remaining 15 patients with lower oesophagus cancer was prescribed 4500 cGy. Computed tomography scans of every patient were obtained and then transmitted to Eclipse TPS for generating treatment plans. All radiotherapy plans were evaluated through various dosimetric indices. Statistical analysis software SPSS was utilised to get the values of means standard error and standard deviation of these indices for the treatment plan evaluation.
Uniformity index (UI) calculated for first group of patients showed difference of 7·4% from ideal value. A difference of 7% between ideal and calculated UI value was observed in 2nd group of patients. The values of other dosimetric indices like coverage, homogeneity, moderate dose homogeneity index (mDHI) and radical dose homogeneity index (rDHI) were found in limits specified by the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group. The maximum difference of 6% was observed between the coverage mean values of 1st and 2nd group treatment plans.
For oesophageal cancer, 3D conformal radiotherapy using four-field treatment plans shows homogeneous distribution of dose around the target and limits the dose to organ at risk.
This study aimed to examine the dosimetric properties of Gafchromic® EBT3 film and intensity-modulated radiation therapy quality assurance (IMRT QA).
Materials and methods
Beams characteristics dosimetric properties and 20 IMRT plans were created and irradiated on Varian dual-energy DHX-S Linac for 6 and 15 MV energies. EBT3 films were analysed using ‘film Pro QA 2014’ software.
The dosimetric comparison of EBT3 film (for red channel dosimetry) and ionisation ion chamber measurement showed that average deviations of symmetry, flatness, central axis, penumbra (left) and penumbra (right) of dose profile were 0·18, 1·34, 0·49%, 3·68 and 3·61 mm for 6 MV and 0·10, 1·3, 0·45, 2·65 and 2·71 mm for 15 MV, respectively. The blue and green channels dosimetry showed greater dose deviation as compared with red channel. IMRT QA verification plan complied about 95% at all different criteria. Reproducibility, stability and face orientation of film were within 1·4% for red channel.
The results advocate that the film can be used not only for dosimetric assessment but also as a reliable IMRT QA tool.
To deliver radiation doses with higher accuracy, radiation treatment through megavoltage photon beams from linear accelerators, is accepted widely for treating malignancies. Before calibrating the linear accelerators, it is essential to make a complete analysis of all photon beam profile parameters. The main objective of this exploration was to investigate the 6 and 15 MV photon beam profile characteristics to improve the accuracy of radiation treatment plans.
In this exploration, treatment parameters like depth, field size and beam energy were varied to observe their effect on dosimetric characteristics of beam profiles in a water phantom, generated by linear accelerator Varian Clinac.
The results revealed that Dmax and Dmin decreased with increasing depth but increased with increasing field sizes. Both left and right penumbras increased with increasing depth, field size and energy. Homogeneity increased with field size but decreased with depth. Symmetry had no dependence on depth, energy and field size.
All the characteristics of photon beam dosimetry were analysed and the characteristics like homogeneity and symmetry measured by an ion chamber in a water phantom came within clinically acceptable level of 3 and 103%, respectively, thus fulfilled the requirements of standard linear accelerator specifications. This exploration can be extended to the determination of beam profile characteristics of electron and photon beams of other energies at various depths and field sizes for designing optimum treatment plans.
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