To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Research suggests an association between metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and schizophrenia. However, the risk of metabolic disorders in the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia remains unclear.
Using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 3135 unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands and 12,540 age-/sex-matched control subjects were included and followed up to the end of 2011. Individuals who developed metabolic disorders during the follow-up period were identified.
The unaffected siblings of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM (3.4% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.010) than the controls. Logistic regression analyses with the adjustment of demographic data revealed that the unaffected siblings of patients with schizophrenia were more likely to develop T2DM (odds ratio [OR]: 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10–1.75) later in life compared with the control group. Moreover, only female siblings of schizophrenia probands had an increased risk of hypertension (OR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.07–2.01) during the follow-up compared with the controls.
The unaffected siblings, especially sisters, of schizophrenia probands had a higher prevalence of T2DM and hypertension compared with the controls. Our study revealed a familial link between schizophrenia and T2DM in a large sample. Additional studies are required to investigate the shared pathophysiology of schizophrenia and T2DM.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness that transmits intergeneratively. Previous studies supported that first-degree relatives (FDRs), such as parents, offspring, and siblings, of patients with bipolar disorder, had a higher risk of bipolar disorder. However, whether FDRs of bipolar patients have an increased risk of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear.
Among the entire population in Taiwan, 87 639 patients with bipolar disorder and 188 290 FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were identified in our study. The relative risks (RRs) of major psychiatric disorders were assessed among FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder were more likely to have a higher risk of major psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (RR 6.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.95–6.30), MDD (RR 2.89, 95% CI 2.82–2.96), schizophrenia (RR 2.64, 95% CI 2.55–2.73), ADHD (RR 2.21, 95% CI 2.13–2.30), and ASD (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.92–2.29), than the total population did. These increased risks for major psychiatric disorders were consistent across different familial kinships, such as parents, offspring, siblings, and twins. A dose-dependent relationship was also found between risk of each major psychiatric disorder and numbers of bipolar patients.
Our study was the first study to support the familial coaggregation of bipolar disorder with other major psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, MDD, ADHD, and ASD, in a Taiwanese (non-Caucasian) population. Given the elevated risks of major psychiatric disorders, the public health government should pay more attention to the mental health of FDRs of patients with bipolar disorder.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts.
To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD.
Using a nationwide, population-based insurance claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009. Any suicide attempt was identified from enrolment to 31 December 2011. The association between ADHD medications and the likelihood of suicide attempt was assessed.
ADHD was an independent risk factor for any suicide attempt (hazard ratio = 3.84, 95% CI = 3.19–4.62) and repeated suicide attempts (hazard ratio = 6.52, 95% CI = 4.46–9.53). Subgroup analyses of men, women, adolescents and young adults demonstrated the same trend. Methylphenidate or atomoxetine treatment did not increase the risk of suicide attempt or repeated suicide attempts. Long-term methylphenidate treatment was associated with a significantly decreased risk of repeated suicide attempts in men (hazard ratio = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.22–0.97).
ADHD was a risk factor for suicide attempt and a stronger predictor of repeated suicide attempts, independent of comorbidities. Further investigation is warranted to explore the mechanism underlying the association between ADHD and suicidal behaviours.
The motivation of this study is to learn more about the effect of lipid to polymer ratios on the biosensing platform in lipid-based vesicles. Nanoparticles are useful because of their ability to detect cancer in the body with the aid of antibodies. This early detection is crucial in avoiding the rapid spread of tumors. In this study, nanoparticles were synthesized for bio-sensing applications. This was accomplished by combining a long chain lipid (dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DPPC) and a short chain lipid (diheptanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, DHPC). After this, the nanoparticles underwent a temperature cycling procedure. Next, the nanoparticles went through a 100nm extrusion filter. This transformed the multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) into unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). The polymer (polypropylene oxide - polyethylene oxide - polypropylene oxide) was then added to the samples, which served as a linker to create a cluster of ULVs. The clustering process was monitored using apparent UV absorption and dynamic light scattering. Dynamic light scattering reflects the hydrodynamic radius of the particle and UV absorption records the change in turbidity. If large clusters are formed, then both the UV absorption and the hydrodynamic radius will increase. Three different polymer to lipid ratios were used: 2.5:1, 1:1, and 0.5:1. The results show that with an increase of polymer to lipid ratios, the aggregation process was facilitated. The nanoparticles were fabricated at the Self-Assembled Functional Nanomaterials (SAFN) lab under the mentorship of Professor Mu-Ping Nieh. The results of this study could provide a more effective way to detect malignant cancer cells in susceptible patients.
Previous evidence has shown positive associations between post-traumatic
stress disorder (PTSD) and hypertension, dyslipidaemia and diabetes
mellitus, which are all risk factors for stroke, but the role of PTSD in
the subsequent development of stroke is still unknown.
To investigate the temporal association between PTSD and the development
Identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database,
5217 individuals aged 18 years, with PTSD but with no history of stroke,
and 20 868 age- and gender-matched controls were enrolled between 2002
and 2009, and followed up until the end of 2011 to identify the
development of stroke.
Individuals with PTSD had an increased risk of developing any stroke
(hazard ratio (HR) 3.37, 95% CI 2.44–4.67) and ischaemic stroke (HR =
3.47, 95% CI 2.23–5.39) after adjusting for demographic data and medical
comorbidities. Sensitivity tests showed consistent findings (any stroke
HR = 3.02, 95% CI 2.13–4.28; ischaemic stroke HR = 2.89, 95% CI
1.79–4.66) after excluding the first year of observation.
Individuals with PTSD have an increased risk of developing any stroke and
ischaemic stroke. Further studies are required to investigate the
This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
In this study, thermodynamic properties of BC2N under extreme conditions have been reported by using first-principle calculations and quasi-harmonic Debye model. Isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of BC2N at normal temperature and pressure is 23.15 kJ mol−1 K−1 and it increases with the temperature and decreases with the pressure. In the low temperature region, pressure has no obvious influence on phonons and thus the decrease of Cv is very slow. In the medium temperature region, the decrease of Cv becomes steep. The reason is that high pressure plays an important role in controlling the vibration of atoms. In the high temperature region, the decrease of Cv becomes slow. Debye temperature (θ) decreases with the temperature. However, the tendency is not obvious in the low temperature region but very clear in high temperature. Moreover, θ increases with pressure and the amplitude is larger in higher temperature. Because of the four covalent bonds with different strength and distribution asymmetric thermal expansion along different axes occurs. The value of thermal expansion coefficient along c axis is more than that of along a and b axes.
Excimer fluorescence of two-component thin films made of pyrene (Py) and polystyrene (PS) can be quenched by the vapor of nitro-aromatic and nitro-ester explosives with a high selectivity and sensitivity. Normally, an electrospun film can be quenched in minutes by the vapor of the explosives. In order to understand the origin of the mechanism, we have investigated the fluorescence quenching rate of the binary thin films as functions of the molecular weights (MW) of the polystyrene (from 2,500 to 900,000 g/mol) and film thicknesses (110nm and 610 nm) in presence of the vapor of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT, a type of nitro-explosives). The diffusion coefficients of 2, 4-DNT in the solid films are found nearly independent of MW but have strong dependence on the film thicknesses.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of osteopontin neutralization treatment on schistosome-induced liver injury in BALB/C mice. We randomly divided 100 BALB/C mice into groups A, B, C, D and group E. Mice in all groups except group A were abdominally infected with schistosomal cercariae to induce a schistosomal hepatopathological model. Mice in group C, D and group E were respectively administered with praziquantel, praziquantel plus colchicine and praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody. We extracted mouse liver tissues at 3 and 9 weeks after the ‘stool-eggs-positive’ day, observed liver histopathological changes by haematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome staining and detected the expression of osteopontin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1) by immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot. We found that praziquantel plus neutralizing osteopontin antibody treatment significantly decreased the granuloma dimension, the percentage of collagen and the expression of osteopontin, α-SMA and TGF-β1 compared to praziquantel plus colchicine treatment in both the acute and chronic stage of schistosomal liver damage (P<0·05). So we believe that the combined regimen of osteopontin immunoneutralization and anti-helminthic treatment can reduce the granulomatous response and liver fibrosis during the schistosomal hepatopathologic course.
The effect of ultrafiltration and diafiltration on the distribution of the calcium phosphate clusters of the casein micelle was investigated using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS). In the case of ultrafiltration, fresh skim milk was subjected to concentration using membrane filtration up to 5× its original volume, the retentate was rediluted with its corresponding serum and subsequently dialyzed against reconstituted milk powder dispersed in D2O/H2O (UF 5×(D)). In the case of diafiltered samples, the samples were concentrated adding water (diafiltration) at two different levels (DF 2·5× or DF 5×) and then redispersed with D2O/H2O. In the DF 5× case, the serum components were diluted to less than 1% of their original concentration. For analysis, all samples had the same volume fraction of dispersed casein micelles (φ=0·1), which is that of the control, unprocessed skim milk. A peak in the SANS data was observed in fresh skim milk at a scattering vector, qo, of 0·034 Å−1 (directly proportional to the reciprocal characteristic length), in agreement with previous literature results. Neutron data on the ultrafiltered, UF 5×(D) and diafiltered, DF 2·5× and DF 5× milk samples showed a progressive decrease in the intensity of the peak but invariance in qo. These results, combined with the determination of soluble and insoluble calcium in the samples, suggest a progressive and irreversible removal of calcium from within the micelle during membrane filtration of milk. Using SANS it was possible to clearly show changes in the micellar calcium clusters that may not otherwise be fully determined by only measuring the amount of total and insoluble calcium in milk.
We present a systematic method for proving non-terminating basic hypergeometric identities. Assume that k is the summation index. By setting a parameter x to xqn, we may find a recurrence relation of the summation by using the q-Zeilberger algorithm. This method applies to almost all non-terminating basic hypergeometric summation formulae in the work of Gasper and Rahman. Furthermore, by comparing the recursions and the limit values, we may verify many classical transformation formulae, including the Sears–Carlitz transformation, transformations of the very well-poised 8φ7 series, the Rogers–Fine identity and the limiting case of Watson's formula that implies the Rogers–Ramanujan identities.
Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are co-dominant molecular markers. When we used fluorescent SSR markers to construct a linkage map for the female heterogametic silkworm (Bombyx mori, ZW), we found that some loci did not segregate in a Mendelian ratio of 1:1 in a backcross population. These loci segregated in a 3:1 ratio of single bands compared with double bands. Further examination of band patterns indicated that three types of SSR bands were present: two homozygotes and one heterozygote. In the beginning, we considered to discard these markers. By scoring male and female F1 individuals, we confirmed that these loci were located on the Z chromosome. Using the sex-linked visible mutation sch (K05) and its wild-type (C108), we constructed an F1 male backcross (BC1M) mapping population. The combination of sch backcross and SSR data enabled us to map the SSR markers to the Z chromosome. By adjusting input parameters based on these data, we were able to use Mapmaker software to construct a linkage map. This strategy takes advantage of co-dominant markers for positional cloning of genes on the Z chromosome. We localized sch to the Z chromosome relative to six SSR markers and one PCR marker, covering a total of 76·1 cM. The sch mutation is an important sex-linked visible mutation widely used in breeding of commercial silkworms (e.g. male silkworm selection rearing). Localization of the sch gene may prove helpful in cloning the gene and developing strains for marker-assisted selection in silkworm breeding.
The development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important fundamental step in the cloning of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and molecular marker assisted breeding. In the present study, NILs for two major QTLs of basal root thickness (BRT) and 1000-grain-weight (TGW) were obtained by molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) through foreground selection for target QTL and background selection in three backcross generations (BC1F1, BC2F1 and BC3F1). After phenotypic evaluation in the BC3F2 generation, nine BRT QTL-NILs with BRT ranges of 1.07–1.16 mm (6.11–15.18% greater than the recurrent parent) and an average recovery ratio of genetic background (RRGB) of 97.22%, and 11 TGW QTL-NILs with ranges of 21.25–26.25 g (7.05–32.16% greater than the recurrent parent) and 95.97% of RRGB, were selected.
The distribution of genetic diversity between Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and O. sativa L. ssp. japonica covering different ecological zones in Yunnan was studied, and specific markers of indica/japonica subspecies, paddy/upland rice and different ecological zones were screened, using 36 microsatellite primers and 113 accessions in the Yunnan landrace rice core collection. The genetic diversity of japonica was higher than that of indica, and the ecological zone with the highest and smallest genetic diversity lay in south-east and north-east Yunnan, respectively. This distribution was consistent at morphological and isozyme levels with studies on the entire Yunnan rice resources and core collection. In addition, the results showed that, among 416 markers, there were six indica/japonica-specific markers, 15 specific markers for paddy/upland rice and three specific markers in different ecological zones. The main conclusions are that the landrace rice core collection in Yunnan genetically represents the entire landrace rice resources in Yunnan, the centre of genetic diversity at DNA level lies in south-east Yunnan, and the DNA differentiation between indica and japonica is small. Furthermore, microsatellite markers were useful for studying the genetic diversity, classification and ecotype of germplasm resources and their core collection.
In our series of 400 Chinese children with foreign body aspiration (FBA),343 cases were evaluated by fluoroscopy and/or plain chest X-rays before endoscopic removal of the foreign bodies. The majority of the foreign bodies (FBs) were organic (378/400, 94.5 per cent). The results showed that mainstem bronchial foreign bodies were diagnosed correctly in 68 per centof cases compared with 65 per cent correct diagnoses with segmental bronchial foreign bodies, but only 22 per cent correct diagnoses with tracheal, and 0 per cent correct diagnosis in those with laryngeal foreign bodies. Eighty per cent (32/40) of the children with laryngotracheal FBs had normal X-ray findings, whereas 67.7 per cent (205/303) of the children with bronchial FBs had abnormal chest X-ray findings. The most common positive radiological signs in the children with tracheobronchial FBs were obstructive emphysema (131/213, 62 per cent) and mediastinal shift (117/213, 55 percent). The incidence of major complications was related not only to the size of the foreign body and its location but also the duration since aspiration. The most common types of bronchial obstructions by airway FBs are discussed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.