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Evidence for the efficacy of cognitive–behavioural therapy for schizophrenia is promising but evidence for clinical effectiveness is limited.
To test the effectiveness of cognitive–behavioural therapy delivered by clinical nurse specialists in routine practice.
Of 274 referrals, 66 were allocated randomly to 9 months of treatment as usual (TAU), cognitive–behavioural therapy plus TAU (CBT) or supportive psychotherapy plus TAU (SPT) and followed up for 3 months.
Treatment effects were modest but the CBT condition gave significantly greater improvement in overall symptom severity than the SPT or TAU conditions combined (F (1,53)=4.14; P=0.05). Both the CBT and SPT conditions combined gave significantly greater improvement in severity of delusions than did the TAU condition (F (1,53)=4.83; P=0.03). Clinically significant improvements were achieved by 7/21 in the CBT condition (33%), 3/19 in the SPT condition (16%) and 2/17 in the TAU condition (12%).
Cognitive–behavioural therapy delivered by clinical nurse specialists is a helpful adjunct to routine care for some people with chronic psychosis.
To determine whether exercise is effective as an adjunct to antidepressant therapy in reducing depressive symptoms in older people.
Patients were randomised to attend either exercise classes or health education talks for 10 weeks. Assessments were made ‘blind’ at baseline, and at 10 and 34 weeks. The primary outcome was seen with the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD). Secondary outcomes were seen with the Geriatric Depression Scale, Clinical Global Impression and Patient Global Impression.
At 10 weeks a significantly higher proportion of the exercise group (55% v. 33%) experienced a greater than 30% decline in depression according to HRSD (OR=2.51, P=0.05, 95% Cl 1.00–6.38).
Because exercise was associated with a modest improvement in depressive symptoms at 10 weeks, older people with poorly responsive depressive disorder should be encouraged to attend group exercise activities.
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