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High Knudsen number non-ideal gas flows in porous media are important and fundamental in various applications including shale gas exploitation and carbon dioxide sequestration. Because of the small pore size in tight rocks, the Knudsen number (Kn) may be high (i.e. much higher than 0.01) even though the gas is really dense. In fact, due to the high pressure and temperature underground, the gas usually manifests a strong non-ideal gas effect. Understanding the coupling mechanism of the high Kn effect and non-ideal gas effect is a premise to accurately model deep-seated underground gas exploitation or carbon dioxide sequestration. In this work, we theoretically analyse the high Kn non-ideal gas flows in microporous media. Based on the relative importance of the non-ideal gas effect and high Kn effect, the coupling is divided into four types. The analysis is subsequently validated by multiscale numerical simulations, in which the four types of coupling are clearly demonstrated. After applying the analysis to laboratory measurements, we propose a characteristic pressure model to calculate the gas permeability of tight rocks with better precision. The new model incorporates the non-ideal gas effect with the high Kn effect accurately and better bridges the laboratory measurements with the reservoir engineering.
Previous work on solute transport with sorption in Poiseuille flow has reached contradictory conclusions. Some have concluded that sorption increases mean solute transport velocity and decreases dispersion relative to a tracer, while others have concluded the opposite. Here we resolve this contradiction by deriving a series solution for the transient evolution that recovers previous results in the appropriate limits. This solution shows a transition in solute transport behaviour from early to late time that is captured by the first- and zeroth-order terms. Mean solute transport velocity is increased at early times and reduced at late times, while solute dispersion is initially reduced, but shows a complex dependence on the partition coefficient
at late times. In the equilibrium sorption model, the time scale of the early regime and the duration of the transition to the late regime both increase with
. The early regime is pronounced in strongly sorbing systems (
). The kinetic sorption model shows a similar transition from the early to the late transport regime and recovers the equilibrium results when adsorption and desorption rates are large. As the reaction rates slow down, the duration of the early regime increases, but the changes in transport velocity and dispersion relative to a tracer diminish. In general, if the partition coefficient
is large, the early regime is well developed and the behaviour is well characterized by the analysis of the limiting case without desorption.
A multi-region scene matching-based localisation system for automated navigation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) is proposed. This system may serve as a backup navigation error correction system to support autonomous navigation in the absence of a global positioning system such as a Global Navigation Satellite System. Conceptually, the system computes the location of the UAV by comparing the sensed images taken by an on board optical camera with a library of pre-recorded geo-referenced images. Several challenging issues in building such a system are addressed, including the colour variability problem and elimination of time-varying details from the pairs of images. The overall algorithm is an iterative process involving four sub-processes: firstly, exact histogram matching is applied to sensed images to overcome the colour variability issues; secondly, regions are automatically extracted from the sensed image where landmarks are detected via their colour histograms; thirdly, these regions are matched against the library, while eliminating inconsistent regions between underlying image pairs in the registration process; and finally the location of the UAV is computed using an optimisation procedure which minimises the localisation error using affine transformations. Experimental results demonstrate the proposed system in terms of accuracy, robustness and computational efficiency.
We combine the Shan-Chen multicomponent lattice Boltzmann model and the link-based bounce-back particle suspension model to simulate particle motion in binary immiscible fluids. The impact of the slightly mixing nature of the Shan-Chen model and the fluid density variations near the solid surface caused by the fluid-solid interaction, on the particle motion in binary fluids is comprehensively studied. Our simulations show that existing models suffer significant fluid mass drift as the particle moves across nodes, and the obtained particle trajectories deviate away from the correct ones. A modified wetting model is then proposed to reduce the non-physical effects, and its effectiveness is validated by comparison with existing wetting models. Furthermore, the first-order refill method for the newly created lattice node combined with the new wetting model significantly improves mass conservation and accuracy.
The effective thermal conductivity of composite materials with thermal contact
resistance at interfaces is studied by lattice Boltzmann modeling in this work.
We modified the non-dimensional partial bounce-back scheme, proposed by Han et
al. [Int. J. Thermal Sci., 2008. 47: 1276-1283],
to introduce a real thermal contact resistance at interfaces into the thermal
lattice Boltzmann framework by re-deriving the redistribution function of heat
at the phase interfaces for a corrected dimensional formulation. The modified
scheme was validated in several cases with good agreement between the simulation
results and the corresponding theoretical solutions. Furthermore, we predicted
the effective thermal conductivities of composite materials using this method
where the contact thermal resistance was not negligible, and revealed the
effects of particle volume fraction, thermal contact resistance and particle
size. The results in this study may provide a useful support for materials
design and structure optimization.
Laser-induced vibrational excitation of ethylene molecules was integrated to the CVD diamond deposition process for an in-depth understanding of the energy coupling path in chemical reactions and an alternative method to enhance the diamond deposition. On- and off-resonance excitations of ethylene molecules were achieved via tuning the incident laser wavelengths centered at 10.532 µm. With the same amount of laser power absorbed, the chemical reaction is highly accelerated with on-resonance vibrational excitation whereas energy coupling with off-resonance excitations was less efficient in influencing the combustion process. The diamond deposition rate was enhanced by a factor of 5.7 accompanied with an improvement of diamond quality index with the on-resonance excitation at 10.532 μm. The measured flame temperature demonstrated that the resonant vibrational excitation was an efficient route for coupling energy into the reactant molecules and steering the combustion process.
TiO2nanoparticles were synthesized by the Sol-Gel method by using 2-propanol as solvent in acid medium (pH1). The samples were annealed at 200 and 500°C and were characterized by BET, XRD-Rietveld refinements, TEM and FTIR. The activity was evaluated by the acetaldehyde photodecomposition in an isolated chamber with an initial concentration of contaminant of 300 ppmv with oxygen (2%) assisted with a 365-nm UV lamp. The test results were compared with those obtained with a commercial catalyst (P25). Improved photoactivity (≍100 % of acetaldehyde in 150 min) was obtained with catalysts annealed at 200°C (TiO2-P-200°C), that showed nanoparticles (≍7 nm) and abundant anatase phase (≍ 63 %) coexist with the brookite phase (≍ 37 %), as well as irregular equiaxial morphology. The samples annealed at 500°C (TiO2-P-500°C), showed an increment in nanoparticles (≍22 nm), different ratio and phase composition (anatase-brookite-rutile), and therefore less activity (≍80 %). This high activity could be explained by the special ratio of anatase-brookite and the dimension of nanometric crystal size. The aforementioned characteristics could be useful in the degradation of reactive organic gases like acetaldehyde either in confined spaces or in the open air.
Gold nanoparticles supported on titania catalysts with different Au loadings were prepared and evaluated in the reaction of NO reduction by CO in an oxygen rich condition. The crystalline structures of the Au/TiO2 materials were refined with Rietveld method. TiO2 support chiefly contains anatase phase, having a crystalline size ranged from 5 to 15 nm. Au particles have an average crystal size approximately 2-5 nm as Au concentration less 3 wt %. In the reaction of NO + CO + O2, the Au/TiO2catalysts show a selectivity to 100 % N2, neither NO2 nor N2O was yielded in the reaction temperature between 25 and 400 °C, which strongly indicates that Au/TiO2catalysts are much superior to the other catalysts like Pt/TiO2 catalysts on which N2O was usually produced in the reaction temperature below 200 °C and NO2 was produced in the reaction temperature above 300 °C under a similar reaction condition.
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