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We describe an effort to reduce transmission of a multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP) in a long-term-care facility (LTCF).
Longitudinal cross-sectional study.
An LTCF in New York City with ongoing disease due to an MDRSP strain among residents with AIDS since a 1995 outbreak. The MDRSP outbreak strain was susceptible to vancomycin but not to other antimicrobials tested, including fluoroquinolones.
Residents and staff members of the LTCF during 1999 through 2001.
Implementing standard infection control measures, and developing and implementing "enhanced standard" infection control measures, modified respiratory droplet prevention measures to reduce inter-resident transmission.
Before the intervention, nasopharyngeal carriage of the MDRSP outbreak strain was detected in residents with AIDS and residents with tracheostomies who were not dependent on mechanical ventilation. The prevalence of nasopharyngeal carriage of the MDRSP outbreak strain was 7.8% among residents who had AIDS and 14.6% among residents with tracheostomies. After training sessions on standard and enhanced standard infection control measures, the staff appeared to have good knowledge and practice of the infection control measures. After the intervention, new transmission among residents with tracheostomies was prevented; however, these residents were prone to persistent tracheal carriage and needed ongoing enhanced standard infection control measures. Ongoing transmission among residents with AIDS, a socially active group, was documented, although fewer cases of disease due to the outbreak strain occurred.
Infection control contributed to less transmission of MDRSP in the LTCF. Additional strategies are needed to reduce transmission and carriage among certain resident populations.
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