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This paper aims to provide an overview of the legal regulation of same sex couples in Spain and Catalonia. It will present how regulations have evolved, from legal disregard of same sex couples to the admission of same sex marriages by the Spanish Law in 2005, upheld by the Spanish Constitutional Court. Reference will be made to Catalan law, as it provided the first comprehensive regulation on same-sex cohabitation. And finally, it will highlight some challenges still faced by same sex couples, as regards assisted reproduction.
Trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a potent bioactive fatty acids (FA) that causes milk fat depression in lactating animals. FA are transferred to milk directly through chylomicrons and indirectly by recycling through other tissues. The objective of this study was to characterise the kinetics of trans-10, cis-12 CLA transfer to plasma and milk after a single bolus infusion. Five multiparous mid-lactation cows received a single abomasal bolus infusion of an enriched CLA mixture providing 15 g of trans-10, cis-12 CLA and 15 g of cis-9, trans-11 CLA over a 30-min period. Plasma concentration of trans-10, cis-12 and cis-9, trans-11 CLA peaked 2 h post-bolus, reaching 0·29 and 0·38 % of total plasma FA, respectively, and returned to pre-bolus values at 72 h post-infusion. Milk trans-10, cis-12 CLA yield and concentration peaked 14 h post-bolus (0·25 g/h) and was not detectable in milk after 86 h. Total apparent transfer of trans-10, cis-12 CLA to milk was 41 %, with 73 % transferred to milk through the direct pool (chylomicrons) and the remaining 27 % transferred through the indirect pool (tissue recycling). Compartmental modelling revealed the existence of a transient unavailable pool of trans-10, cis-12 CLA in extravascular tissues represented primarily by the mammary gland, which slowly exchanges with an available pool for secretion in milk fat and transfer to milk. In conclusion, trans-10, cis-12 CLA is predominantly transferred to milk through the direct pathway; however, how this CLA isomer is processed within the mammary gland requires further investigation.
Intracardiac rhabdomyomas can cause severe ventricular dysfunction and outflow tract obstruction.
A term newborn infant with antenatal diagnosis of giant left ventricle rhabdomyoma presented with cardiac failure and duct-dependent systemic circulation after birth. She was treated successfully with everolimus, showing decrease in tumour size and improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction.
Tumour regression rate was 0.32 cm2/day and improved to 0.80 cm2/day with the use of everolimus. Herein we report a newborn with inoperable giant left ventricular cardiac rhabdomyoma and significant regression of the tumour. To our knowledge, this is the largest left ventricular rhabdomyoma reported. A review of the literature was undertaken for comparison.
Everolimus has proven to be efficacious in size reduction of cardiac rhabdomyomas in cases when surgical resection is not possible.
Polymer composites of Polylactic acid (PLA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL), containing small amounts of titanium oxide (TiO2) were developed for biomedical applications. These composite materials were prepared, and then printed using Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). 3D printed structures were characterized to determine their mechanical properties and biocompatibility. DSC analysis yielded useful information regarding the immiscibility of the different polymers, and it was observed that the particles of TiO2 improved the stability of the polymers. The ultimate tensile strength and the fracture strain increased by adding TiO2 as a filler, resulting in values of approximately 45 MPa and 5.5 % elongation. The printed composites show excellent in vitro biocompatibility including cell proliferation and adhesion, and are therefore promising candidates to be used in the biomedical field for bone replacement procedures, due to their properties similar to those of cancellous bone.
Assuming that linguistic representation has been studied only by linguists using grammaticality judgments, Branigan & Pickering (B&P) present structural priming as a novel alternative. We show that their assumptions are incorrect for cognitive-functional linguistics, exposing converging perspectives on form/meaning pairings between generativists and cognitive-functional linguists that we hope will spark the cross-disciplinary discussion necessary to produce a cognitively plausible model of linguistic representation.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is responsible for 5%-10% of all deaths among children 5-19 years-of-age. The incidence of SCD in youth in Michigan (USA) and nationwide is higher in racial/ethnic minorities and in certain geographic areas. School cardiac emergency response plans (CERPs) increase survival after cardiac arrest. However, school cardiac emergency preparedness remains variable. Studying population-level factors associated with school cardiac emergency preparedness and incidence of SCD in the young may improve understanding of disparities in the incidence of SCD.
The objective of this pilot study was to determine the association of elements of high school cardiac emergency preparedness, including Automated External Defibrillator (AED) distribution and the presence of CERPs with county sociodemographic characteristics and county incidence of SCD in the young.
Surveys were sent to representatives from all public high schools in 30 randomly selected Michigan counties. Counties with greater than 50% response rate were included (n=19). Association of county-level sociodemographic characteristics with incidence of SCD in the young and existence of CERPs were evaluated using Spearman correlation coefficient.
Factors related to the presence of AEDs were similar across counties. Schools in counties of lower socioeconomic status (SES; lower-median income, lower per capita income, and higher population below poverty level) were less likely to have a CERP than those with higher SES (all P<.01). Lack of a CERP was associated with a higher incidence of SCD in youth (r=-0.71; P=.001). Overall incidence of SCD in youth was higher in lower SES counties (r=-0.62 in median income and r=0.51 in population below poverty level; both P<.05).
County SES is associated with the presence of CERPs in schools, suggesting a link between school cardiac emergency preparedness and county financial resources. Additionally, counties of lower SES demonstrated higher incidence of SCD in the young. Statewide and national studies are required to further explore the factors relating to geographic and socioeconomic differences in cardiac emergency preparedness and the incidence of SCD in the young.
WhiteMJ, LoccohEC, GobleMM, YuS, OdetolaFO, RussellMW. High School Cardiac Emergency Response Plans and Sudden Cardiac Death in the Young. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(3):269–272.
Agomelatine is a newer antidepressant but, to date, no studies have been carried out investigating its effects on C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD) before and after treatment. The present study aimed (i) to investigate the effects of agomelatine treatment on CRP levels in a sample of patients with MDD and (ii) to investigate if CRP variations were correlated with clinical improvement in such patients.
30 adult outpatients (12 males, 18 females) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnosis of MDD were recruited in “real-world,” everyday clinical practice and treated with a flexible dose of agomelatine for 12 weeks. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) and the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) were used to evaluate depressive symptoms and anhedonia, respectively. Moreover, serum CRP was measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment.
Agomelatine was effective in the treatment of MDD, with a significant reduction in HAM-D and SHAPS scores from baseline to endpoint. CRP levels were reduced in the whole sample, with remitters showing a significant difference in CRP levels after 12 weeks of agomelatine. A multivariate stepwise linear regression analysis showed that higher CRP level variation was associated with higher baseline HAM-D scores, controlling for age, gender, smoking, BMI, and agomelatine dose.
Agomelatine’s antidepressant properties were associated with a reduction in circulating CRP levels in MDD patients who achieved remission after 12 weeks of treatment. Moreover, more prominent CRP level variation was associated with more severe depressive symptoms at baseline.
2D materials have shown to be the next step in semiconductor use and device manufacturing that can allow us to reduce the size of most electronics. One of the novel ways to obtain 2D materials is through liquid exfoliation, in which these materials can be obtained by dispersing the smallest possible particles in different solvents. Once obtained, the solutions can be used to manufacture devices via different processes, one of which is inkjet printing. This process relies in selecting “jettable” fluids, which need to have the necessary combination of viscosity and surface energy or “wettability”. In this work we have modified the viscosities and surface energies of five solvents: IPA (Isopropanol), NMP (N-methyl – 2 pyrrolidone), DMA (Dimethylacetamide), DMF (Dimethylformamide) and a mixture of Cyclohexanone / Terpineol 7:3. We have found an avenue to tailor the viscosity of these solvents though the addition of Ethyl Cellulose (EC), where the viscosity has been increased by up to 15 times at an EC concentration of 6%. For inkjet printing, ideally a viscosity of 4 – 10 cP is recommended, which we have been able to achieve with all of the solvents studied. It has been found that the different solvents present different susceptibilities to the EC addition, with DMA and DMF being the least sensitive to the EC addition. We have also studied the change in the drop dynamics and interactions of the 2D solutions with the substrate. Through this analysis we have found solvents that appear to be attractive for inkjet printing of MoS2 and graphite.
Objectives: Individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) demonstrate poorer learning and memory skills relative to never-depressed comparisons (NDC). Previous studies report decreased volume and disrupted function of frontal lobes and hippocampi in MDD during memory challenge. However, it has been difficult to dissociate contributions of short-term memory and executive functioning to memory difficulties from those that might be attributable to long-term memory deficits. Methods: Adult males (MDD, n=19; NDC, n=22) and females (MDD, n=23; NDC, n=19) performed the Semantic List Learning Task (SLLT) during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The SLLT Encoding condition consists of 15 lists, each containing 14 words. After each list, a Distractor condition occurs, followed by cued Silent Rehearsal instructions. Post-scan recall and recognition were collected. Groups were compared using block (Encoding-Silent Rehearsal) and event-related (Words Recalled) models. Results: MDD displayed lower recall relative to NDC. NDC displayed greater activation in several temporal, frontal, and parietal regions, for both Encoding-Silent Rehearsal and the Words Recalled analyses. Groups also differed in activation patterns in regions of the Papez circuit in planned analyses. The majority of activation differences were not related to performance, presence of medications, presence of comorbid anxiety disorder, or decreased gray matter volume in MDD. Conclusions: Adults with MDD exhibit memory difficulties during a task designed to reduce the contribution of individual variability from short-term memory and executive functioning processes, parallel with decreased activation in memory and executive functioning circuits. Ecologically valid long-term memory tasks are imperative for uncovering neural correlates of memory performance deficits in adults with MDD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 412–425)
Transcatheter cryoablation is a well-established technique for the treatment of atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia in children. Fluoroscopy or three-dimensional mapping systems can be used to perform the ablation procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the success rate of cryoablation procedures for the treatment of right septal accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal re-entry circuits in children using conventional or three-dimensional mapping and to evaluate whether three-dimensional mapping was associated with reduced patient radiation dose compared with traditional mapping.
In 2013, 81 children underwent transcatheter cryoablation at our institution, using conventional mapping in 41 children – 32 atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and nine atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia – and three-dimensional mapping in 40 children – 24 atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia and 16 atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia.
Using conventional mapping, the overall success rate was 78.1 and 66.7% in patients with atrioventricular nodal re-entry tachycardia or atrioventricular re-entry tachycardia, respectively. Using three-dimensional mapping, the overall success rate was 91.6 and 75%, respectively (p=ns). The use of three-dimensional mapping was associated with a reduction in cumulative air kerma and cumulative air kerma–area product of 76.4 and 67.3%, respectively (p<0.05).
The use of three-dimensional mapping compared with the conventional fluoroscopy-guided method for cryoablation of right septal accessory pathways and atrioventricular nodal re-entry circuits in children was associated with a significant reduction in patient radiation dose without an increase in success rate.
Influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 became the predominant circulating strain in the United States during the 2013–2014 influenza season. Little is known about the epidemiology of severe influenza during this season.
A retrospective cohort study of severely ill patients with influenza infection in intensive care units in 33 US hospitals from September 1, 2013, through April 1, 2014, was conducted to determine risk factors for mortality present on intensive care unit admission and to describe patient characteristics, spectrum of disease, management, and outcomes.
A total of 444 adults and 63 children were admitted to an intensive care unit in a study hospital; 93 adults (20.9%) and 4 children (6.3%) died. By logistic regression analysis, the following factors were significantly associated with mortality among adult patients: older age (>65 years, odds ratio, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.4–6.9], P=.006 and 50–64 years, 2.5 [1.3–4.9], P=.007; reference age 18–49 years), male sex (1.9 [1.1–3.3], P=.031), history of malignant tumor with chemotherapy administered within the prior 6 months (12.1 [3.9–37.0], P<.001), and a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (for each increase by 1 in score, 1.3 [1.2–1.4], P<.001).
Risk factors for death among US patients with severe influenza during the 2013–2014 season, when influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 was the predominant circulating strain type, shifted in the first postpandemic season in which it predominated toward those of a more typical epidemic influenza season.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(11):1251–1260
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
In the debate over how to address organ shortage, one of the suggestions that has been made is that presumed consent legislation would help to increase the number of organ donations. Since Spain has the highest rate of deceased organ donation in the world (34.4 organ donors per million population (pmp) in 2009), it may be easy to assume that it is a direct consequence of its presumed consent legislation. It would be easy, but misleading. On the one hand, if presumed consent legislation held the key to organ procurement success, then all countries with similar legislation would be among the countries with the highest rates of organ donation and this is clearly not the case. On the other hand, this assumption fails to take into account any of the factors that make the Spanish system so successful.
Spanish legislation which introduced presumed consent for deceased organ donation dates back to 1979. However the rate of deceased organ donation only started to rise after the Spanish National Transplant Organisation (Organización Nacional de Trasplantes) (ONT) was created in 1989. From an average rate of organ donation in Spain at 14.3 donors pmp in 1989, it rose to having the highest world rate in 1993 with 22.6 donors pmp, reaching 35.1 donors pmp in 2005. Key features of the ONT which contributed to this success include a national network of specifically trained, part-time, dedicated and strongly motivated hospital physicians in direct charge of the whole process of donation.
To estimate the dietary intake of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), and to characterise factors associated with higher intake during pregnancy. Recent studies suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH is associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. Other than tobacco smoke and occupational exposures, diet is the main source of human PAH exposure.
Prospective birth cohort study. Dietary exposure to total PAH and BaP was calculated combining food consumption data and estimated PAH concentrations in foods. One-way ANOVA was used to assess differences in intake among non-smokers, passive or active smokers. Linear regression was used to assess factors related to higher intake, and associations between dietary PAH and birth weight.
Sabadell, Spain, 2004–2006.
Women (n 657) recruited during the first trimester of pregnancy.
The mean dietary intake of BaP and total PAH was significantly higher among active (0·199 and 10·207 μg/d, respectively) and passive smokers (0·196 and 9·458 μg/d) than among non-smokers (0·181 and 8·757 μg/d; P value < 0·005). Maternal age, educational level and region of origin were also associated with higher BaP intake. In all women, major contributors to PAH intake were processed/cured meats, cereals/potatoes and shellfish. Elevated first trimester dietary BaP was associated with a significant reduction in birth weight (fourth v. first quartile: β = −142·73 g, P value < 0·05).
Active and passive smokers had higher dietary PAH exposure during pregnancy because of higher intake of processed meats and shellfish. As tobacco smoke is an additional route of PAH exposure, the added dietary burden in these women is of concern.
The prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the rate of compliance with HBV vaccination laws were investigated in a study at Padua University Medical School (Italy). Of 2,361 students, 385 (16.3%) tested negative for antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen. When vaccination was actively offered to these students, there was a low rate of compliance (47.0% [181 students]) but a good rate of seroconversion (93.1% [95 of 102 students]). Screening for HBV markers appears to be crucial to efforts to increase rates of vaccination coverage.
The two young clusters NGC 346 and NGC 602 in the Small Magellanic Cloud provide us with the opportunity to study and the efficiency of feedback mechanism at low metallicity, as well as the impact of local and global conditions in cluster formation and evolution. I describe the latest results from a multi-wavelength, large-scale study of these two clusters. HST/ACS images reveal that the clusters have very different structures: NGC 346 is composed by a number of sub-clusters which appear coeval with ages of 3 ± 1 Myr, strongly suggesting formation by the hierarchical fragmentation of a turbulent molecular cloud (Nota et al. 2006; Sabbi et al. 2007a). NGC 602, on the contrary, appears as a single small cluster of OB stars surrounded by pre-main sequence stars. For both clusters high-resolution spectroscopy of the ionized gas shows little evidence for gas motions. This suggests that at the low SMC metallicity, the winds from the hottest stars are not powerful enough to sweep away the residual gas. Instead we find that stellar radiation is the dominant process shaping the interstellar environment of NGC 346 and NGC 602.