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In August 2001, a cluster of MRSA skin infections was detected in a correctional facility. An investigation was conducted to determine its cause and to prevent further MRSA infections.
A 200-bed detention center.
A case was defined as a detainee with a skin lesion from which MRSA was cultured from July 24 through December 31, 2001. Case-patients were identified by review of laboratory culture results and by skin lesion screening through point-prevalence survey and admission examination. Controls were randomly selected from an alphabetized list of detainees.
Medical staff implemented measures to improve skin disease screening, personal hygiene, wound care, and antimicrobial therapy.
Sixteen cases were identified: 11, 5, and 0 in the preintervention, peri-intervention, and postintervention periods, respectively. Seven case-patients and 19 controls were included in the case-control study. On multivariable analysis, working as a dormitory orderly (OR, 9.8; CI95, 0.74-638; P= .10) and a stay of longer than 36 days (OR, 6.9; CI95, 0.65-128.2; P = .14) were the strongest predictors for MRSA skin infection. The preintervention, peri-intervention, and postintervention MRSA infection rates were 11.6, 8.8, and 0 per 10,000 detainee-days, respectively. The rate of MRSA skin infections declined significantly between both the preintervention and peri-intervention periods and the postintervention period (P < .01 for both comparisons).
MRSA skin disease can become an emergent problem in a correctional facility. Interventions targeted at skin disease screening, appropriate antimicrobial treatment, and hygiene may decrease the risk of acquiring MRSA infection in correctional facilities.
Although reports of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections without healthcare exposure are increasing, population-based data regarding nasal colonization are lacking. We assessed the prevalence of and risk factors for community-associated MRSA nasal carriage in patients of a rural outpatient clinic.
A cross-sectional population survey was conducted through random sample and stratification by community of residence. Recent healthcare exposure (ie, hospitalization, dialysis, or healthcare occupation) and other risk factors for MRSA carriage were assessed. Cultures of the nares were performed. Community-associated MRSA was defined as MRSA carriage without healthcare exposure.
A predominantly American Indian community in Washington.
Those receiving healthcare from an Indian Health Service clinic.
Of 1,311 individuals identified for study, 475 (36%) participated. Unsatisfactory culture specimens resulted in exclusion of 6 participants. In all, 128 (27.3%) of 469 participants had S. aureus. Nine (1.9%) of 469 had MRSA carriage; of these, 5 had community-associated MRSA (5 of 469; overall community-associated MRSA carriage rate, 1.1%). MRSA carriage was associated with antimicrobial use in the previous year (risk ratio [RR], 7.2; P = .04) and residence in a household of more than 7 individuals (RR, 4.5; P= .03). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that 5 (55%) of 9 MRSA carriage isolates were closely related, including 3 (60%) of 5 that were community associated.
Prevalence of community-associated MRSA colonization was approximately 1% in this rural, American Indian population. Community-associated MRSA colonization was associated with recent antimicrobial use and larger household.