The ICRISAT genebank, Patancheru, India holds 22,211 pearl millet germplasm accessions from 50 countries, including 19,063 landraces. Among these, 15,904 landraces that were geo-referenced are either thermo-sensitive (52.5%), or photoperiod-sensitive (45.6%), or insensitive to both temperature and photoperiod (2%). Latitude ranges of 10–15°N with 39.6% and 15–20°S with 13.1% of total accessions are the important regions for pearl millet germplasm. A study on climate data of the germplasm collection sites revealed that most accessions from latitudes ranging from 10 to 20° on both sides of the equator were highly sensitive to longer photoperiod (>12.5 h) and/or lower temperature ( < 12°C). Accessions that originated in locations at higher latitudes (>20–35°) on both the hemispheres exhibited low sensitivity to both photoperiod and low temperature, as they were exposed to such climates during their evolution. The accessions that are insensitive to both photoperiod and temperature were few but they originated from locations spread across all latitudes, although the highest numbers were from mid-latitudes (15–20°) in both hemispheres. As germplasm accessions are sensitive to climatic variables such as temperature and photoperiod, recording of location-specific geo-reference data while collecting the germplasm, which can help to elucidate the sensitivity of accessions to temperature and photoperiod, is emphasized. Critical evaluation of photoperiod-sensitive accessions that are late flowering for forage production and the photoperiod-insensitive early-maturing accessions for grain production, multiple cropping and development of parental lines with synchronized flowering for the development of hybrids is suggested.