The mud shrimps of Iran are not well known. Material for the present study was collected from 21 out of 51 intertidal localities from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran. In total, 11 species were found along the Iranian coast. These were belonging to three families, including Upogebiidae (Upogebia carinicauda, U. darwinii and U. pseudochelata), Callianassidae (Neocallichirus jousseaumei, N. calmani, Callichirus masoomi, Corallianassa coutierei, Michaelcallianassa indica, Paratrypaea bouvieri and Gourretia coolibah) and Callianideidae (Callianidea typa). Geographical distributions of the species were considered and the results show that each species is totally dependent on a special type of habitat. Comparing different types of habitat, sandy and muddy substrates of the intertidal and shallow subtidal zone are found as the dominant habitat type for all species, but some species have a preference for boulder dominated coasts or occupy already existing holes and crevices in the boulder and bedrocks. In addition, the world distribution of each species was considered, and according to their present recorded localities, these are grouped into two distributional categories including the Indo-West Pacific region and one in a broader area of the Indo-Pacific.