The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Iranian human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients using multilocus-nested polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (Mn-PCR-RFLP). A total of 102 serum samples obtained from infected patients were collected from the laboratory centres in northern Iran. Anti-T. gondii antibodies and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) detection were accomplished by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and PCR. The Mn-PCR-RFLP method was used for the genotyping of T. gondii. Overall, 68.6% (70/102) and 11.7% (12/102) of the individuals were tested positive for anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G and T. gondii DNA, respectively. Complete genotyping was performed on 10/12 (83.3%) PCR-positive samples. Accordingly, the samples were classified as genotype #1 (type II clonal; n = 3, 30%), genotype #2 (type III clonal; n = 2, 20%), genotype #10 (type I clonal; n = 2, 20%), genotype #27 (type I variant; n = 1, 10%), genotype #35 (type I variant; n = 1, 10%) and genotype #48 (type III variant; n = 1, 10%). The results were indicative of the high frequency of the type I and type I variant of T. gondii strains in HIV-positive patients in northern Iran. Given the high prevalence of T. gondii and frequency of pathogenic types (pathogen in laboratory mice) in the patients, special measures should be taken to prevent the possible increased incidence of encephalitis by T. gondii.