To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Government policy guidance in Victoria, Australia, encourages schools to provide affordable, healthy foods in canteens. This study analysed the healthiness and price of items available in canteens in Victorian primary schools and associations with school characteristics.
Dietitians classified menu items (main, snack and beverage) using the red, amber and green traffic light system defined in the Victorian government’s School Canteens and Other School Food Services Policy. This system also included a black category for confectionary and high sugar content soft drinks which should not be supplied. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to analyse differences in the healthiness and price of main meals, snacks and beverages offered, according to school remoteness, sector (government and Catholic/independent) size, and socio-economic position.
State of Victoria, Australia
A convenience sample of canteen menus drawn from three previous obesity prevention studies in forty-eight primary schools between 2016 and 2019.
On average, school canteen menus were 21 % ‘green’ (most healthy – everyday), 53 % ‘amber’ (select carefully), 25 % ‘red’ (occasional) and 2 % ‘black’ (banned) items, demonstrating low adherence with government guidelines. ‘Black’ items were more common in schools in regional population centres. ‘Red’ main meal items were cheaper than ‘green’% (mean difference –$0·48 (95 % CI –0·85, –0·10)) and ‘amber’ –$0·91 (–1·27, –0·57)) main meal items. In about 50 % of schools, the mean price of ‘red’ main meal, beverages and snack items were cheaper than ‘green’ items, or no ‘green’ alternative items were offered.
In this sample of Victorian canteen menus, there was no evidence of associations of healthiness and pricing by school characteristics except for regional centres having the highest proportion of ‘black’ (banned) items compared with all other remoteness categories examined. There was low adherence with state canteen menu guidelines. Many schools offered a high proportion of ‘red’ food options and ‘black’ (banned) options, particularly in regional centres. Unhealthier options were cheaper than healthy options. More needs to be done to bring Victorian primary school canteen menus in line with guidelines.
To assess the feasibility of implementation and customer perspectives of a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction initiative across YMCA Victoria aquatic and recreation centres.
Two data sources were used to assess implementation and customer acceptability. Photo audits were used to assess the type of drinks available for purchase 6 months prior to initiative implementation and 6 months after, in thirty centres. Change in the range of SSB targeted for removal, non-targeted SSB, as well as drinks classified as ‘red’ (limit), ‘amber’ (choose carefully) and ‘green’ (best choice), was reported. Customer surveys were conducted in three centres to assess acceptability and awareness of the initiative. Inductive and deductive thematic analysis was used to analyse customers’ perspectives of the initiative.
30 aquatic and recreation centres in Victoria, Australia.
At post-implementation, 87 % of centres had removed targeted SSB. ‘Red’ drinks reduced by an average of 4·4 drink varieties compared to pre-implementation (11·9 varieties) and ‘green’ drinks increased by 1·4 varieties (3·2 varieties pre-implementation). Customers were largely unaware of the SSB-reduction initiative (90 %) but supported YMCA Victoria in continuing the initiative (89 %), with many believing it would support children in making healthier choices.
Implementation of an initiative that limited SSB availability across a large number of aquatic and recreation centres was feasible and considered acceptable by customers. Customers frequently mentioned the importance of protecting children from consuming SSB.
To investigate (i) changes in stakeholder commitment and (ii) perceptions of the purpose, challenges and benefits of healthy food and beverage provision in community sports settings during the stepwise implementation of a healthy beverage policy.
Convergent, parallel, mixed-methods design complemented (i) repeat semi-structured interviews with council stakeholders (n 17 interviews, n 6 interviewees), with (ii) repeat quantitative stakeholder surveys measuring Commitment to Organisational Change; (iii) weekly sales data examining health behaviour and revenue effects (15 months pre-intervention; 14 months post-intervention); (iv) customer exit surveys (n 458); and (v) periodic photographic audits of beverage availability. Interviews were analysed inductively. Stakeholder surveys, sales data, customer surveys and audits were analysed descriptively.
Four local government-owned sports and recreation centres in Melbourne, Australia, completed a 3-month trial to increase the availability of healthy beverages and decrease the availability of unhealthy beverages in food outlets.
Interviews were conducted with council managers and those involved in implementation (September 2016–October 2017). Customers were surveyed (September–October 2017).
Interviews and surveys indicated that stakeholders’ commitment to policies varied such that, over time, optimism that changing beverage availability could increase the healthiness of customers’ purchases became more widespread among interviewees. Stakeholder focus generally progressed from anticipatory concern to solutions-focused discussions. Sales, audit and customer survey data supported interview findings.
We found a general increase in optimism regarding policy outcomes over time during the implementation of a healthy beverage policy. Stepwise trials should be further explored as an engagement tool within community retail settings.
In 2015, beverages were removed from display at a self-service café within a major health service, resulting in fewer purchases of unhealthy beverages. This initiative was continued following initial evaluation of the results. The current study aimed to determine customer acceptability of the initiative, and whether healthier purchases had continued, at 18 months following implementation.
Drinks were categorised as ‘green’ (best choices), ‘amber’ (choose carefully) and ‘red’ (limit), based on the state government nutrient profiling system, for intervention and analysis purposes. In 2015, unhealthy ‘red’ drinks were removed from display. In 2017, weekly beverage sales were counted, through stock-taking, for 6 weeks, and customer surveys were conducted over 2 days.
A café located within a major Victorian health service.
Café customers (hospital staff, patients and visitors).
Eighteen months after the implementation of the initiative, the proportion of ‘red’ beverages sold was 7 % of total drink sales (compared with 33 % before the removal of unhealthy beverages from display in 2015 (P < 0·001), and 10 % immediately following the removal of unhealthy beverages from display). Customer surveys revealed high levels of acceptability for the initiative and low levels of awareness of the initiative.
The removal of unhealthy beverages from display can result in customers making healthier purchases, and this appears to continue over the long-term. Such interventions have the potential to contribute to the sustained shift in population purchases and consumption needed to make meaningful improvements to population health.
The present study assessed the impact of the retailer-led removal of unhealthy beverages from display at a self-service café within a major health service. While unhealthy beverages remained available from behind the counter upon request, this was not communicated directly to customers.
Drinks were categorised based on the state government nutrient profiling system, classifying drinks as ‘green’ (best choices), ‘amber’ (choose carefully) and ‘red’ (limit). Total drink sales (as number of items sold per week) in the café were measured for five weeks. All unhealthy ‘red’ beverages were removed from display (but were still available for purchase) and the sales of all beverages were measured for another six weeks.
We found that, in response to this strategy, the proportion of ‘red’ drinks sold decreased from 33 % to 10 % of total drink sales. As ‘amber’ and ‘green’ drink sales increased in response to this strategy, total retailer sales remained steady. Most consumers appeared to switch to purchasing ‘amber’ drinks rather than the healthiest option, ‘green’ drinks.
The removal of unhealthy beverages from display can result in consumers making healthier purchases, while not significantly affecting retailers’ sales.