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Both attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are neurodevelopmental disorders with a high prevalence. They are often comorbid and both exhibit abnormalities in sustained attention, yet common and distinct neural patterns of ASD and ADHD remain unidentified.
To investigate shared and distinct functional connectivity patterns in a relatively large sample of boys (7- to 15-year-olds) with ADHD, ASD and typical development matched by age, gender and IQ.
We applied machine learning techniques to investigate patterns of surface-based brain resting-state connectivity in 86 boys with ASD, 83 boys with ADHD and 125 boys with typical development.
We observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic and somatomotor networks in boys with ASD compared with boys with typical development. We also observed increased functional connectivity within the limbic, visual, default mode, somatomotor, dorsal attention, frontoparietal and ventral attention networks in boys with ADHD compared with boys with ASD. In addition, using a machine learning approach, we were able to discriminate typical development from ASD, typical development from ADHD and ASD from ADHD with accuracy rates of 76.3%, 84.1%, and 79.3%, respectively.
Our results may shed new light on the underlying mechanisms of ASD and ADHD and facilitate the development of new diagnostic methods for these disorders.
Child maltreatment is a major risk factor for psychopathology, including reactive attachment disorder (RAD).
To examine whether neural activity during reward processing was altered in children and adolescents with RAD.
Sixteen children and adolescents with RAD and 20 typically developing (TD) individuals performed tasks with high and low monetary rewards while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Significantly reduced activity in the caudate and nucleus accumbens was observed during the high monetary reward condition in the RAD group compared with the TD group (P=0.015, family-wise error-corrected cluster level). Significant negative correlations between bilateral striatal activity and avoidant attachment were observed in the RAD and TD groups.
Striatal neural reward activity in the RAD group was markedly decreased. The present results suggest that dopaminergic dysfunction occurs in the striatum of children and adolescents with RAD, leading towards potential future risks for psychopathology.
Dementia has negative consequences for both persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Dyadic interventions in which both groups participate together have shown an effective and promising approach. The Couples Life Story Approach (CLSA) that was recently developed for older couples dealing with dementia in the USA was adapted and implemented for the older Korean population in this study. The purpose of this paper is to understand how older Korean couples dealing with dementia experienced the CLSA.
Fifty six couples (n = 102) completed the five-week intervention from December 2013 to October 2015. The participants completed a survey including open-ended questions one week after finishing the intervention. A thematic content analysis was conducted to analyze the responses.
Qualitative analysis revealed benefits and challenges in the experience of CLSA. Themes related to benefits were: (1) emotional benefits of reminiscing; (2) positive evaluation of life as a couple; (3) gratitude toward spouse; (4) changes in communications or activities with spouse; and (5) changes in relationship quality. Couples’ experience varied, with some having mixed feelings about the intervention. Challenges perceived by participants included revival of bitterness and identification of loss.
Findings suggest the CLSA contributes to enhancing the quality of life for couples affected by Alzheimer's disease and improving their relationship. Challenges that emerged in the CLSA will guide future research to identify the sub-population that is appropriate for the couple-oriented intervention in dementia care.
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