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Increased access to defensible material wealth is hypothesised to escalate inequality. Market integration, which creates novel opportunities in cash economies, provides a means of testing this hypothesis. Using demographic data collected from 505 households among the matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo in 2017, we test whether market integration is associated with increased material wealth, whether increased material wealth is associated with wealth inequality, and whether being in a matrilineal vs. patrilineal kinship system alters the relationship between wealth and inequality. We find evidence that market integration, measured as distance to the nearest source of tourism and primary source of household income, is associated with increased household income and ‘modern’ asset value. Both village-level market integration and mean asset value were associated negatively, rather than positively, with inequality, contrary to predictions. Finally, income, modern wealth and inequality were higher in matrilineal communities that were located closer to the centre of tourism and where tourism has long provided a relatively stable source of income. However, we also observed exacerbated inequality with increasing farm animal value in patriliny. We conclude that the forces affecting wealth and inequality depend on local context and that the importance of local institutions is obscured by aggregate statistics drawn from modern nation states.
Many waterflooding oil fields, injecting water into an oil-bearing reservoir for pressure maintenance, are in their middle to late stages of development. To explore the geological conditions and improve oilfield recovery of the most important well group of the Hu 136 block, located on the border areas of three provinces (Henan, Shandong, and Hebei), Zhongyuan Oilfield, Sinopec, central China, a 14C cross-well tracer monitoring technology was developed and applied in monitoring the development status and recognize the heterogeneity of oil reservoirs. The tracer response in the production well was tracked, and the water drive speed, swept volume of the injection fluid were obtained. Finally, the reservoir heterogeneity characteristics, such as the dilution coefficient, porosity, permeability, and average pore-throat radius, were fitted according to the mathematical model of the heterogeneous multi-layer inter-well theory. The 14C-AMS technique developed in this work is expected to be a potential analytical method for evaluating underground reservoir characteristics and providing crucial scientific guidance for the mid to late oil field recovery process.
The jungles of Linyun and Longlin Autonomous Prefecture, located in the heart of the southwestern Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China, are home to the oldest tea trees (Camellia sinensis) in the world. In the absence of regular annual rings, radiocarbon (14C) dating is one of the most powerful tools that can assist in the determination of the ages and growth rates of these plants. In this work, cores were extracted from large ancient tea trees in a central Longlin rain forest; extraction of carbon was performed with an automated sample preparation system. The 14C levels in the tree cores were measured using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Tsukuba. These measurements indicated that contrary to conventional views, the ages of trees in these forests range up to ~700 years, and the growth rate of this species is notably slow, exhibiting a long-term radial growth rate of 0.039±0.006 cm/yr. It was demonstrated that 14C analyses provide accurate determination of ages and growth rates for subtropical wild tea trees.
Bioinspired surfaces with special wettability have rapidly emerged at the forefront of materials research. What is behind biological surfaces with special wettability, and how can we realize special wettability properties for artificial materials? This article describes how the interplay between unique multiscale (micro- and nanoscale) structures of biological surfaces and intrinsic material properties plays a crucial role in achieving the desired wettability and functionalities. Taking inspiration from natural surfaces, researchers have designed and created novel interfacial materials with versatile special wettability, such as superantiwetting surfaces (superhydrophobic and superoleophobic), smart switchable surfaces, and water collecting surfaces.
With the preparation of organic-inorganic layered perovskite-type compounds (C4H9NH3)2MCl4 (M = Mn, Cu) in solutions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been used to characterize the obtained powders. XRD patterns demonstrate that the two compounds have obvious layered structures and SEM pictures reveal that both (C4H9NH3)2MnCl4 and (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4 take on obvious sheet-like microstructure. TG&DSC curves indicate that (C4H9NH3)2CuCl4 decomposes at much lower temperature than (C4H9NH3)2MnCl4.This is ascribed to weakening interactions between its organic and inorganic components, which is presumably due to the Jahn-Teller distortion of [CuCl6] octahedra.
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