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Cancer is a serious public health problem worldwide, and its relationship
with affective disorders is not clear.
To investigate alcohol- and tobacco-related cancer risk among patients
with affective disorders in a large Taiwanese cohort.
Records of newly admitted patients with affective disorders from January
1997 through December 2002 were retrieved from the Psychiatric Inpatient
Medical Claims database in Taiwan. Cancers were stratified by site and
grouped into tobacco- or alcohol-related cancers. Standardised incidence
ratios (SIRs) were calculated to compare the risk of cancer between those
with affective disorders and the general population.
Some 10 207 patients with bipolar disorder and 9826 with major depression
were included. The risk of cancer was higher in patients with major
depression (SIR = 2.01, 95% CI 1.85–2.19) than in those with bipolar
disorder (SIR 1.39, 95% CI 1.26–1.53). The elevated cancer risk among
individuals ever admitted to hospital for affective disorders was more
pronounced in tobacco- and/or alcohol-related cancers.
Elevated cancer risk was found in patients who had received in-patient
care for affective disorders. They require holistic approaches to
lifestyle behaviours and associated cancer risks.
The aim of this study was to examine and test the sensitivity, specificity, and threshold scores of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and determine those that best correspond to a clinical diagnosis of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).
Sixty-seven Alzheimer's disease (AD), 36 DLB, and 62 healthy participants without dementia (NC), aged 60 to 90, were enrolled. All three groups took the MoCA and MMSE tests at the same time. The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel tests and receiver operating characteristics curve analysis were used to compare the different neuropsychological test results among the groups.
The cut-off point of the MoCA for AD was 21/22 with a sensitivity of 95.5% and a specificity of 82.3% (area under the curve (AUC): 0.945), and the cut-off point for DLB was 22/23 with a sensitivity of 91.7% and a specificity of 80.6% (AUC: 0.932). For the MMSE, the cut-off points for AD and for DLB from NC were all 24/25, with a sensitivity of 88.1% and a specificity of 85.5% for AD (AUC: 0.92), and a sensitivity of 77.8% and a specificity of 85.5% for DLB (AUC: 0.895). After controlling sex, age, and education, AD and DLB had lower scores in all MoCA subscales than the NC group (p < 0.05), except for the orientation and naming in DLB. In addition, AD had a lower score in the MoCA orientation (p = 0.03) and short-term memory (p = 0.02) than did DLB.
The MoCA is a more sensitive instrument than the MMSE to screen AD or DLB patients from non-dementia cases.
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