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Mineral resource extraction has frequently caused social tensions in China. This research examines the reactive and pre-emptive strategies used by the Chinese state to cope with resource conflicts. Based on extensive fieldwork in multiple mining areas, we find that the Chinese local state actively mediates between the mining sector and local citizens, and skilfully suppresses collective protests. More importantly, it pre-emptively intervenes in dispute-prone processes and redistributes resource wealth to create vested interests and mitigate popular grievances. We argue that the active state intervention in resource conflicts in China is driven by the party-state's tight control of local officials, which prevents local capture by resource interests, and enabled by the party-state's deep reach into society, which allows grassroots governments to negotiate between conflicting interests and mobilize resources towards conflict resolution.
Ionization-induced electron injection in laser wakefield accelerators, which was recently proposed to lower the laser intensity threshold for electron trapping into the wake wave, has the drawback of generating electron beams with large and continuous energy spreads, severely limiting their future applications. Complex target designs based on separating the electron trapping and acceleration stages were proposed as the only way for getting small energy-spread electron beams. Here, based on the self-truncated ionization-injection concept which requires the use of unmatched laser–plasma parameters and by using tens of TW laser pulses focused onto a gas jet of helium mixed with low concentrations of nitrogen, we demonstrate single-stage laser wakefield acceleration of multi-hundred MeV electron bunches with energy spreads of a few percent. The experimental results are verified by PIC simulations.
The relationship between climate, crop growth and crop yield is complicated. This study aimed to determine the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield, the field treatments were initiated in 2003, but the measurements for this analysis were collected during the summer maize-growing seasons of 2011 and 2012 in the North China Plain. The experiment showed that conventional tillage with straw application significantly increased grain yield and the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield of summer maize. The mean soil CO2–C emission rate with no tillage was significantly lower than that when conventional tillage was used; however, straw application significantly increased the soil CO2–C emission rate, irrespective of whether tillage was performed or not. This was mainly because straw application changed the soil total porosity and organic carbon content. In conclusion, the results of this study support the hypothesis that the ratio of CO2–C emission to grain yield in the North China Plain can be increased by straw application, whereas no tillage decreases this ratio.
Many studies have suggested that folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients may play a role in certain cancer risks, but few studies have assessed their associations with the risk for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we investigated the association between four folate-related one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients (folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine) and NPC risk in Chinese adults. A total of 600 patients newly diagnosed (within 3 months) with NPC were individually matched with 600 hospital-based controls by age, sex and household type (urban v. rural). Folate, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and methionine intakes were measured using a validated seventy-eight-item FFQ. A higher dietary folate or vitamin B6 intake was associated with a lower NPC risk after adjusting for potential confounders. The adjusted OR of NPC for quartiles 2–4 (v. 1) were 0·66 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·91), 0·52 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·74) and 0·34 (95 % CI 0·23, 0·50) (Ptrend<0·001) for folate and 0·72 (95 % CI 0·52, 1·00), 0·55 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·78) and 0·44 (95 % CI 0·30, 0·63) (Ptrend<0·001) for vitamin B6. No significant association with NPC risk was observed for dietary vitamin B12 or methionine intake. The risk for NPC with dietary folate intake was more evident in the participants who were not exposed to toxic substances than in those who were exposed (Pinteraction=0·014). This study suggests that dietary folate and vitamin B6 may be protective for NPC in a high-risk population.
The ternary compound of AlCu4Y was synthesized by melting under argon atmosphere in the arc furnace. High-quality X-ray powder diffraction data of AlCu4Y have been collected using a Rigaku SmartLab X-ray powder diffractometer. The Rietveld refinement results of the X-ray diffraction pattern for the AlCu4Y compound showed that the AlCu4Y is the hexagonal structure, space-group P6/mmm (No. 191) with a = 5.0658(1) Å, c = 4.1569(1) Å, V = 92.38 Å3, Z = 1, and the density is 6.66 g cm−3, and the intensity ratio RIR is 1.96.
Countries endowed with rich natural resources such as fuels and minerals often fall behind in human development. Does resource endowment hamper human capital development in China, a country that hosts rich resources in many of its regions? Through cross-regional and longitudinal statistical analysis and field research in selected mining areas, this study finds that resource dependence reduces government expenditure on human capital-enhancing public goods including education and health care. The local economic structure and reduced demand for labour, the shifting of government responsibilities onto mining enterprises, and the myopia of local residents and officials all discourage the local governments in resource-rich regions from investing in human capital.
A new quaternary compound PrAlFeNi3 was synthesized and studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction technique. The powder pattern of PrAlFeNi3 was indexed and refined, giving a hexagonal structure, space group P6/mmm (No. 191) with the CaCu5 structure type, a = 5.1132(2) Å, c = 4.0737(1) Å, V = 92.19 Å3, Z = 1, ρx = 7.20 g cm−3, F30 = 173.61 (0.0054, 32) and RIR = 0.77.
The CeCo3Ni2 compound was synthesized by arc melting under argon atmosphere. High-quality powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of CeCo3Ni2 have been collected using a Rigaku SmartLab X-ray powder diffractometer. The refinement of the XRD pattern for the CeCo3Ni2 compound shows that the CeCo3Ni2 is a hexagonal structure, space group P6/mmm (No.191) with a = b = 4.9081(2) Å, c = 4.0034(2) Å, V = 83.52 Å3, Z = 1, and ρx = 8.6347 g cm−3. The Smith–Snyder FOM F30 = 112.7(0.0089, 30) and the intensity ratio RIR = 0.48.
In this paper, we investigate the Dirichlet eigenvalue problems of the poly-Laplacian with any order and the quadratic polynomial operator of the Laplacian. We give some estimates for lower bounds of the sums of their first k eigenvalues.
A new ternary compound Ho2AlGe3 was synthesized and studied by means of X-ray powder diffraction technique. The powder pattern of Ho2AlGe3 was indexed and refined, giving an orthorhombic structure, space group Pnma (No. 62) with the Y2AlGe3 structure type: a = 6.743 98(8) Å, b = 4.163 73(5) Å, c = 17.5834(2) Å, V = 493.74 Å3, Z = 4, ρx = 7.73 g cm−3, F30 = 202.7 (0.004, 37), and RIR = 1.21.
Crystal and X-ray powder diffraction data are presented for the Al3Ho2Si2 ternary compound. The powder pattern was indexed and refined on a monoclinic cell with the Al3Y2Si2 structure type with space group C12/m1, a = 10.1096(2) Å, b = 4.020(6) Å, c = 6.5734(6) Å, β = 100.848(2)°, V = 262.37 Å3, Z = 2ρx = 5.910 g cm−3, F30 = 142.8(0.006, 35), and RIR = 0.91.
New geochronological data for the Haolibao porphyry Mo–Cu deposit, NE China, yield Permian crystallization zircon U–Pb ages of 278 ± 5 Ma for granite and 267 ± 10 Ma for the granite porphyry that hosts the Mo–Cu mineralization, and four Re–Os molybdenite ages yield an isochron age of 265 ± 3 Ma. These ages disagree with the previous K–Ar age determinations that suggest a correlation of intrusive rocks of the Haolibao area with the Yanshanian intrusive rocks of Cretaceous age. The mineralizations at the Haolibao area may be related to the tectonic–magmatic activity caused by collisional events between the North China Plate and Mongolian terranes during the Permian. The occurrence of the Haolibao plutonic rocks indicates that the Palaeo-Asian-Mongolian Ocean closed during the Permian along the Xilamulun River suture.
Ionization-induced injection into a laser-driven wakefield is studied using 2½D OSIRIS simulations. A laser propagates into a gas mixture of 99.5% helium and 0.5% nitrogen with gas density of each rising linearly from 0 to a peak, after which these remain constant. Simulations show that the process can be controlled by varying the scale length of an up-ramp, the laser intensity, and the maximum plasma density. The injection process is controlled by the bubble radius decreasing as laser propagates up the density gradient and laser self-focusing in the flat-top region. A beam with a central energy of 350 MeV and an energy spread (FWHM) of 1.62% was obtained for an up-ramp length of 135 μm, a normalized vector potential of 2, and a density of 7 × 1018cm−3 (assuming a 0.8 μm wavelength laser).
The Chehugou granite-hosted molybdenum deposit is typical of the Xilamulun metallogenic belt, which is an important Mo–Ag–Pb–Zn producer in China. A combination of major and trace element, Sr and Nd isotope, and zircon U–Pb isotopic data are reported for the Chehugou batholith to constrain its petrogenesis and Mo mineralization. The zircon SIMS U–Pb dating yields mean ages of 384.7 ± 4.0 Ma and 373.1 ± 5.9 Ma for monzogranite and syenogranite and 265.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 245.1 ± 4.4 Ma for syenogranite porphyry and granite porphyry, respectively. The Devonian granites are calc-alkaline with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.44–0.52, the Permian granites are alkali-calcic with K2O/Na2O ratios of 1.13–1.25, and the Triassic granites are calc-alkaline and alkali-calcic rocks with K2O/Na2O ratios of 0.78–1.63. They are all enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high-field-strength elements (HFSEs) with negative Nb and Ta anomalies in primitive mantle-normalized trace element diagrams. They have relatively high Sr (189–1256 ppm) and low Y (3.87–5.43 ppm) concentrations. The Devonian granites have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.7100–0.7126, negative ɛNd(t) values of −12.3 to −12.4 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 16.46–17.50. In contrast, the Permian and Triassic granitoids have relatively low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7048–0.7074), negative ɛNd(t) values of −10.1 to −13.1 and 206Pb/204Pb ratios of 17.23–17.51. These geochemical features suggest that the Devonian, Permian and Triassic Chehugou granitoids were derived from ancient, garnet-bearing crustal rocks related to subduction of the Palaeo-Asian Ocean and subsequent continent–continent collision between the North China and Siberian plates.
The objective of the present study is to measure basal energy expenditure (BEE) using the Cosmed K4b2 portable metabolic system (Rome, Italy) and to develop a new predictive equation for BEE in southern Chinese adults. A total of 165 healthy Chinese adults aged 18–45 years with normal body weight were involved in the present study. BEE was measured by Cosmed K4b2. Body composition was determined by body composition analysers (ImpediMed DF50, QLD, Australia). Multiple linear regression analysis and correlation analysis were applied to develop a new optimal equation for predicting BEE of southern healthy Chinese adults. Measured BEE (mBEE) of southern Chinese healthy adults was 5513 (sem 96) kJ/d, which was similar to the results predicted by the equation developed by of Liu 5579 (sem 57) kJ/d (P = 0·37) and significantly lower than those from equations developed by Henry (5763 (sem 54) kJ/d), Schofield (5898 (sem 58) kJ/d) and Harris–Benedict (HB; 5863 (sem 51) kJ/d) (all P = 0·001). The optimal equation developed by our data was BEE (kJ/d) = 277+89 weight (kg)+600 sex (male = 1 and female = 0) (r2 = 0·48, n 165). For males, BEE (kJ/d) = 105 weight (kg) − 58 (r2 = 0·27, n 79); for females, BEE (kJ/d) = 69 weight (kg)+1335 (r2 = 0·24, n 86). In conclusion, the mBEE of southern Chinese healthy adults was 5513 (sem 96) kJ/d. The BMR of Chinese adults of normal weight is overestimated by widely used prediction equations developed by Henry, Schofield and HB. The equation developed in the present study (equation 7) can be used in predicting BEE for Chinese adults aged 18–45 years with normal body weight.
Chinese companies have begun to ‘go global’. High-profile examples include: Lenovo's $1.75 billion takeover of IBM's personal computer business in 2004; Huawei, which has implemented its telecommunications network equipment solutions in over a hundred countries, maintains a network of twelve R&D centres around the world, and in 2007 acquired 3Com in partnership with Bain Capital; and appliance maker Haier, whose brand ranked 86th in the top 500 most influential global brands (World Brand Lab, 2006). Less widely recognized, however, is the fact that scores of other, little-known Chinese companies have begun to carve out significant, sometimes even dominant, global market shares in numerous industries as diverse as port machinery, medical equipment, and pianos (Zeng and Williamson, 2007, p. 19).
In analysing this recent emergence of Chinese multinationals, this chapter begins by outlining how leading companies from China have parlayed their CSAs into the FSAs (Rugman, 1981) that equip them to successfully compete in the global market. We then compare and contrast the strategies Chinese companies have used to leverage these FSAs globally with the typology introduced by Ramamurti and Singh to describe the emergence of multinationals from India. The remainder of the chapter focuses on how these strategies are allowing Chinese firms to harness the new ‘gateways to entry’ (Verdin and Williamson, 1994) that the globalization of the world economy is opening up, to build new multinationals with surprising speed.
The bovine interferon-tau (bIFN-τ) gene, with signal sequence, was obtained through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from bovine early embryos and subcloned into a pGEM-T vector. After being verified, the fragments, with or without signal sequence, were inserted into the expression vector pET-30a(+). Two recombinant plasmids were induced to express the recombinant proteins by isopropyl β-d-1-thiogalactopyranoside. The results showed that the bIFN-τ gene could be obtained from five bovine blastocysts by PCR without extraction of genomic DNA. It had 99% homology with nucleotides and 97% with amino acids in the GenBank sequence (accession number: XM_593584). The products of recombinant bIFN-τ, minus signal sequence, expressed in pET-30a(+) were analysed by SDS-PAGE. A new 20 kDa protein was detected and its molecular weight was as expected. The antiviral activity of recombinant bIFN-τ was 1×104 IU/mg using a standard cytopathic reduction assay. Marked morphological changes were induced by recombinant bIFN-τ in bovine endometrial epithelial cells. The cell volume was larger than that of controls and a lot of vesicles appeared in the cytoplasm after 24 h culture in the presence of 2.9 μg/ml recombinant bIFN-τ. In conclusion, a purified recombinant, biologically active bIFN-τ was obtained in this experiment.
Accumulated evidence suggests that social support is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. However, there are little data that examine this issue from Asian samples. We reported results from a preliminary study that examined familial effects on social support in a Chinese adult twin sample. We administered a 10-item social support instrument that measures three dimensions of social support (i.e., objective support, subjective support, and utilization of support) developed for the Chinese population. Two hundred forty-two same-sex twin pairs, where both members of the pair completed the personal interview, were included in the final analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate additive genetic (A), shared environmental (C), and nonshared environmental (E) effects on each dimension of social support. Familial factors (A+C) explained 56.63% [95% CI = 45.48–65.72%] and 42.42% [95% CI = 29.93–53.25%] of the total phenotypic variances of subjective support and utilization of support, respectively. For the objective support, genetic effects did not exist, but common environmental effect explained 37.56% [95% CI = 26.17–48.28%] of the total phenotypic variances. Neither gender nor age effects were seen on any dimension of social support. Except for objective support, genetic factors probably influence variation in subjective support and utilization of support. Shared environmental factors may influence all dimensions of social support.