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Compared with nitrogen and argon, helium is lighter and can better reduce the beam loss caused by angular scattering during beam transmission. The molecular dissociation cross-section in helium is high and stable at low energies, which makes helium the prevalent stripping gas in low-energy accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). To study the stripping behavior of 14C ions in helium at low energies, the charge state distributions of carbon ion beams with −1, +1, +2, +3, and +4 charge states were measured at energies of 70–220 keV with a compact 14C-AMS at Guangxi Normal University (GXNU). The experimental data were used to analyze the stripping characteristics of C-He in the energy range of 70–220 keV, and new charge state yields and exchange cross-sections in C-He were obtained at energies of 70–220 keV.
We explored long-term employment status and income before and after depression diagnosis among men and women and at different working ages in Taiwan.
Data from 2006 to 2019 were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Individuals with newly diagnosed depressive disorder aged 15 to 64 years during the study period were identified. An equal number of individuals without depression were matched for their demographic and clinical characteristics. Employment outcomes included employment status, which was categorized into employed or unemployed, and annual income. Based on the occupation categories and monthly insurance salary recorded in the Registry for Beneficiaries of the NHIRD, a subject was defined as unemployed if he or she differed from the income earner or the occupation category was unemployed. Monthly income was defined as zero for unemployed subjects and proxied as monthly insurance salary for others. Annual income was the sum of monthly income in each observation year.
A total of 420,935 individuals with depressive disorder were included in the study, and an equal number of individuals with not diagnosed depression served as controls. Employment rate and income were lower in the depression group than in the control group before the year of diagnosis, with a difference of 5.7% in employment rate and USD 1,173 in annual income. This gap increased considerably after the year of diagnosis (7.3% in employment rate and USD 1,573 in annual incomes) and further widened in the subsequent years (8.1% in employment rate and USD 2,006 in annual incomes in the 5th following year). The drops in the employment rate and income caused by depression were more evident in men and older age groups than in women and younger age groups, respectively. However, the reduction in employment rate and income in the following years after the diagnosis was more considerable among younger age groups.
The effect of depression on employment status and income was significant during the year of diagnosis and continued afterwards. The effect on employment outcomes varied between genders and across all age groups.
Breast cancer is a high-risk disease with a high mortality rate among women. Chemotherapy plays an important role in the treatment of breast cancer. However, chemotherapy eventually results in tumours that are resistant to drugs. In recent years, many studies have revealed that the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling is crucial for the emergence and growth of breast tumours as well as the development of drug resistance. Additionally, drugs that target this pathway can reverse drug resistance in breast cancer therapy. Traditional Chinese medicine has the properties of multi-target and tenderness. Therefore, integrating traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine into chemotherapy provides a new strategy for reversing the drug resistance of breast tumours. This paper mainly reviews the possible mechanism of Wnt/β-catenin in promoting the process of breast tumour drug resistance, and the progress of alkaloids extracted from traditional Chinese medicine in the targeting of this pathway in order to reverse the drug resistance of breast cancer.
We present the results of two population surveys conducted 10 years apart (December 2010–February 2011 and December 2020–January 2021) of the Critically Endangered white-headed langur Trachypithecus leucocephalus in the Chongzuo White-Headed Langur National Nature Reserve, Guangxi Province, China. In the first survey, we recorded 818 individuals in 105 groups and 16 solitary adult males. In the second survey, we recorded 1,183 individuals in 128 groups and one solitary adult male. As a result of government policies, poaching for food and traditional medicine is no longer a primary threat to these langurs. However, severe forest loss and fragmentation caused by human activities could limit any future increase of this langur population.
A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (GXNU-AMS) developed for radiocarbon and tritium measurements was installed and commissioned at Guangxi Normal University in 2017. After several years of operational and methodological upgrades, its performance has been continuously improved and applied in multidisciplinary fields. Currently, the measurement sensitivity for radiocarbon and tritium is 14C/12C ∼ (3.14 ± 0.05) ×10–15 and 3H/1H ∼ (1.23 ± 0.17)×10–16, respectively, and the measurement accuracy is ∼0.6%, which can meet the measurement requirements in the nuclear, earth, environmental and life science fields. This study presents the performance characteristics of GXNU-AMS and several interesting application studies.
We aimed to investigate the association of metabolic obesity phenotypes with all-cause mortality risk in a rural Chinese population. This prospective cohort study enrolled 15 704 Chinese adults (38·86 % men) with a median age of 51·00 (interquartile range: 41·00–60·00) at baseline (2007–2008) and followed up during 2013–2014. Obesity was defined by waist circumference (WC: ≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women) or waist-to-height ratio (WHtR: ≥ 0·5). The hazard ratio (HR) and 95 % CI for the risk of all-cause mortality related to metabolic obesity phenotypes were calculated using the Cox hazards regression model. During a median follow-up of 6·01 years, 864 deaths were identified. When obesity was defined by WC, the prevalence of participants with metabolically healthy non-obesity (MHNO), metabolically healthy obesity (MHO), metabolically unhealthy non-obesity (MUNO) and metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUO) at baseline was 12·12 %, 2·80 %, 41·93 % and 43·15 %, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity and education, the risk of all-cause mortality was higher with both MUNO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·14, 1·26) and MUO (HR = 1·20, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·27) v. MHNO, but the risk was not statistically significant with MHO (HR = 0·99, 95 % CI 0·89, 1·10). This result remained consistent when stratified by sex. Defining obesity by WHtR gave similar results. MHO does not suggest a greater risk of all-cause mortality compared to MHNO, but participants with metabolic abnormality, with or without obesity, have a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results should be cautiously interpreted as the representation of MHO is small.
In a single serving of boba tea, the non-human actors of the tall plastic cups, plastic dome lids, and the giant plastic straws dominate, but receive little attention. This article uses recent theories and discussions of new materialism to bring together cultural analysis of the boba tea consumption phenomenon that could be relevant for reflecting on a sustainable future. The article contributes to social research of waste by focusing on the mediating functions of plastic before it becomes waste. My central argument is that plastic is not merely a physical and impartial container in the contemporary food and beverage industry. It plays an indispensable role in the visualization, mass mediation, and consumption of the boba tea beverage. While current waste research often focuses on the “afterlife” of plastic waste as it relates to underclass waste workers, recycling economy and global waste trade, this article highlights the performative function of plastic as it changes the way we imagine time, gender, and waste. I show it is the plastic cup that enables boba tea to be so visually and gastronomically satisfying in an age when the photogenicity and “Instagrammability” of food and beverage have become more relevant to taste and distinctions.
With the dangerous and troublesome nature of hollow defects inside building structures, hollowness inspection has always been a challenge in the field of construction quality assessment. Several methods have been proposed for inspecting hollowness inside concrete structures. These methods have shown great advantages compared to manual inspection but still lack autonomy and have several limitations. In this paper, we propose a range-point migration-based non-contact hollowness inspection system with sensor fusion of ultra-wide-band radar and laser-based depth camera to extract both outer surface and inner hollowness information accurately and efficiently. The simulation result evaluates the performance of the system based on the original range-point migration algorithm, and our proposed one and the result of our system show great competitiveness. Several simulation experiments of structures that are very common in reality are carried out to draw more convincing conclusions about the system. At the same time, a set of laboratory-made concrete components were used as experimental objects for the robotic system. Although still accompanied by some problems, these experiments demonstrate the availability of an automated hollow-core detection system.
Youth suicide rates have increased markedly in some countries. This study aimed to estimate the population-attributable risk of psychiatric disorders associated with suicide among Taiwanese youth aged 10–24 years.
Data were obtained from the National Death Registry and National Health Insurance (NHI) claims database between 2007 and 2019. Youth who died by suicide were included, and comparisons, 1:10 matched by age and sex, were randomly selected from the Registry for NHI beneficiaries. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate suicide odds ratios for psychiatric disorders. The population-attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated for each psychiatric disorder.
A total of 2345 youth suicide and 23 450 comparisons were included. Overall, 44.8% of suicides had a psychiatric disorder, while only 7.9% of the comparisons had a psychiatric disorder. The combined PAF for all psychiatric disorders was 55.9%. The top three psychiatric conditions of the largest PAFs were major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and sleep disorder. In the analysis stratified by sex, the combined PAF was 45.5% for males and 69.2% for females. The PAF among young adults aged 20–24 years (57.0%) was higher than among adolescents aged 10–19 years (48.0%).
Our findings of high PAF from major depressive disorder, dysthymia, and sleep disorder to youth suicides suggest that youth suicide prevention that focuses on detecting and treating mental illness may usefully target these disorders.
It has been suggested that added sugar intake is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, previous studies only focused on sugar-sweetened beverages; the evidence for associations with total added sugars and their sources is scarce. This study aimed to examine the associations of total added sugars, their physical forms (liquid v. solid) and food sources with risk of NAFLD among adults in Tianjin, China. We used data from 15 538 participants, free of NAFLD, other liver diseases, CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline (2013–2018 years). Added sugar intake was estimated from a validated 100-item FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography after exclusion of other causes of liver diseases. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95 % CI for NAFLD risk with added sugar intake. During a median follow-up of 4·2 years, 3476 incident NAFLD cases were documented. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI and its change from baseline to follow-up, lifestyle factors, personal and family medical history and overall diet quality, the multivariable HR of NAFLD risk were 1·18 (95 % CI 1·06, 1·32) for total added sugars, 1·20 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·33) for liquid added sugars and 0·96 (95 % CI 0·86, 1·07) for solid added sugars when comparing the highest quartiles of intake with the lowest quartiles of intake. In this prospective cohort of Chinese adults, higher intakes of total added sugars and liquid added sugars, but not solid added sugars, were associated with a higher risk of NAFLD.
The codling moth Cydia pomonella is a major pest of global significance impacting pome fruits and walnuts. It threatens the apple industry in the Loess Plateau and Bohai Bay in China. Sterile insect technique (SIT) could overcome the limitations set by environmentally compatible area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) approaches such as mating disruption and attract-kill that are difficult to suppress in a high-density pest population, as well as the development of insecticide resistance. In this study, we investigated the effects of X-ray irradiation (183, 366, 549 Gy) on the fecundity and fertility of a laboratory strain of C. pomonella, using a newly developed irradiator, to evaluate the possibility of X-rays as a replacement for Cobalt60 (60Co-γ) and the expanded future role of this approach in codling moth control. Results show that the 8th-day is the optimal age for irradiation of male pupae. The fecundity decreased significantly as the dosage of radiation increased. The mating ratio and mating number were not influenced. However, treated females were sub-sterile at a radiation dose of 183 Gy (20.93%), and were almost 100% sterile at a radiation dose of 366 Gy or higher. Although exposure to a radiation dose of 366 Gy resulted in a significant reduction in the mating competitiveness of male moths, our radiation biology results suggest that this new generation of X-ray irradiator has potential applications in SIT programs for future codling moth control.
Aiming at the problem of low accuracy of robot joint fault diagnosis, a fault diagnosis method of robot joint based on BP neural network is designed. In this paper, the UR10 robot is taken as the research object, and the end pose data of the robot are collected in real time. By injecting different joint errors and changing the sampling frequency, the joint fault database is collected and established, and the BP neural network is used for training to obtain the robot neural network fault diagnosis model. The fault diagnosis model can output the joint fault of the input end pose data. And we analyzed the influence of different joint angle errors and different training sets on the accuracy of joint fault diagnosis of the robot. The results show that when the sampling frequency is 250 Hz, the simulation result of joint fault diagnosis accuracy with the fault degree of 0.5° is 99.17%, and the experimental result is 97.87%. Compared with traditional data-driven methods, it has higher accuracy and diagnostic efficiency, and compared with existing machine learning methods, it also achieves a high accuracy while reducing the network complexity. The effectiveness of the BP neural network robot joint fault diagnosis method is verified by experiments.
Excess body weight and hyperlipidaemia cause severe health problems and have social implications. Amycenone is an active substance extracted from Yamabushitake mushrooms with no reports of its activity against excess body weight and hyperlipidaemia. This research clarifies the effects and mechanisms of action of amycenone on the inhibition of body weight excess and hyperlipidaemia attenuation using KK-Ay mice. Amycenone or water was administered to 8-week-old male KK-Ay mice by gavage for 8 weeks. Their body weight and food intake were recorded during the experiment. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were dissected, and blood samples, lipid metabolism-related organs and tissues were collected and stored for further analysis. Amycenone treatment suppressed body weight gain and improved serum levels of fasting blood glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Additionally, serum and hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were reduced after this treatment, whereas the phosphorylation levels of AMPK, PKA and HSL increased and the expression level of FAS decreased. The protein level of C/EBPβ and gene expression level of Cpt1 were higher in the perirenal adipose tissue of amycenone-treated KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, amycenone phosphorylated AMPK, PKA and ACC, and PPARγ expression was lower in the mesenteric adipose tissue. The phosphorylation levels of AMPK, LKB1, PKA and ACC were also induced, and FAS expression level was reduced in the liver of the amycenone-treated group. Amycenone could reduce excess body weight and attenuate hyperlipidaemia in KK-Ay mice by inhibiting lipogenesis and promoting lipolysis through lipid metabolism pathway stimulation and fatty acid β-oxidation acceleration.
Low molecular weight glutenin subunits (LWM-GSs) play a crucial role in determining wheat flour processing quality. In this work, 35 novel LMW-GS genes (32 active and three pseudogenes) from three Aegilops umbellulata (2n = 2x = 14, UU) accessions were amplified by allelic-specific PCR. We found that all LMW-GS genes had the same primary structure shared by other known LMW-GSs. Thirty-two active genes encode 31 typical LMW-m-type subunits. The MZ424050 possessed nine cysteine residues with an extra cysteine residue located in the last amino acid residue of the conserved C-terminal III, which could benefit the formation of larger glutenin polymers, and therefore may have positive effects on dough properties. We have found extensive variations which were mainly resulted from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertions and deletions (InDels) among the LMW-GS genes in Ae. umbellulata. Our results demonstrated that Ae. umbellulata is an important source of LMW-GS variants and the potential value of the novel LMW-GS alleles for wheat quality improvement.
Host density is a key regulatory factor in parasite transmission. The goldfish (Carassius auratus)-Gyrodactylus kobayashii model was used to investigate effects of host density on population growth of gyrodactylids. A donor fish infected by five gravid gyrodactylids was mixed with 11 parasite-free goldfish at five host densities. There was a significant positive correlation between host density and mean abundance of G. kobayashii throughout the 58-day experiment. During early infection (days 15–24), mean abundance in medium high (0.5 fish L−1) and high host density groups (1 and 2 fish L−1) was significantly higher than that in the low host density groups (0.125 and 0.25 fish L−1). At high host density, prevalence increased more rapidly, and the peak prevalence was higher. Fitting of an exponential growth model showed that the population growth rate of the parasite increased with host density. A hypothesis was proposed that higher host density contributed to increased reinfection of detached gyrodactylids. A reinfection experiment was designed to test this hypothesis. Both mean abundance and prevalence at a host density of 1 fish L−1 were significantly higher than those at 0.25 fish L−1 on days 1 and 3, which suggested that more reinfections of G. kobyashii occurred at the higher host density. Density-dependent transmission during the early infection was an important contributor of population growth of G. kobayashii, as well as density-dependent reinfection of the detached gyrodactylids.
This study aimed to describe the clinical manifestations of adenovirus infections and identify potential risk factors for co-infection with chlamydia, viruses and bacteria in hospitalised children from Hangzhou, China. From January to December 2019, the characteristics of hospitalised children infected with adenovirus at Hangzhou Children's Hospital and Zhejiang Xiaoshan Hospital were collected. The clinical factors related to co-infection with chlamydia, viruses and bacteria were assessed using multivariate logistic regression analyses. A total of 5989 children were infected with adenovirus, of which 573 were hospitalised for adenovirus infection. The severity of adenovirus respiratory infection was categorised as follows: mild (bronchiolitis, 73.6%), moderate (bronchopneumonia, 17.6%) or severe (pneumonia, 8.8%). Of the 573 children who were hospitalised, 280 presented with co-infection of chlamydia, viruses or bacteria, while the remaining 293 had only adenovirus infection. Multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses indicated that elevated ferritin was associated with an increased risk of chlamydia co-infection (odds ratio (OR) 6.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56–27.11; P = 0.010). However, increased white blood cell (WBC) count was associated with a reduced risk of viral co-infection (OR 0.84; 95% CI 0.75–0.95; P = 0.006). The study indicated that co-infection with chlamydia could be affected by elevated ferritin levels. WBC levels could affect viral co-infection in hospitalised children infected with adenovirus.
In light of the dynamic systems perspective, the current study expanded existing literature by examining the moderating effect of maternal sensitivity on the quadratic association between infant negative reactivity and future executive function development. Using a longitudinal, multimethod design, we addressed executive function development among preschoolers. This study utilized data from the Family Life Project (N = 1292). Infant negative reactivity at 6 months, maternal sensitivity across first 3 years, and executive functions during preschool age were observational assessed. A path model with moderation analyses revealed a U-shaped quadratic association between infant negative reactivity and preschoolers’ inhibitory control, only when maternal sensitivity was high. The results suggest that maternal sensitivity may assist infants with both low and high, but not moderate, levels of negative reactivity towards better executive function development. Findings support the ongoing nonlinear person-environment interplay during early years of life.
Prospective cohort studies linking organ meat consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD in a general Chinese adult population. This prospective cohort study included a total of 15 568 adults who were free of liver disease, CVD and cancer at baseline. Dietary information was collected at baseline using a validated FFQ. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound after excluding other causes related to chronic liver disease. Cox proportional regression models were used to assess the association between organ meat consumption and risk of NAFLD. During a median of 4·2 years of follow-up, we identified 3604 incident NAFLD cases. After adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, vegetable, fruit, soft drink, seafood and red meat consumption, the multivariable hazard ratios (95 % CI) for incident NAFLD across consumption of organ meat were 1·00 (reference) for almost never, 1·04 (0·94, 1·15) for tertile 1, 1·08 (0·99, 1·19) for tertile 2 and 1·11 (1·01, 1·22) for tertile 3, respectively (Pfor trend < 0·05). Such association did not differ substantially in the sensitivity analysis. Our study indicates that organ meat consumption was related to a modestly higher risk of NAFLD among Chinese adults. Further investigations are needed to confirm this finding.
Previous analyses of grey and white matter volumes have reported that schizophrenia is associated with structural changes. Deep learning is a data-driven approach that can capture highly compact hierarchical non-linear relationships among high-dimensional features, and therefore can facilitate the development of clinical tools for making a more accurate and earlier diagnosis of schizophrenia.
To identify consistent grey matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia, 662 people with schizophrenia and 613 healthy controls were recruited from eight centres across China, and the data from these independent sites were used to validate deep-learning classifiers.
We used a prospective image-based meta-analysis of whole-brain voxel-based morphometry. We also automatically differentiated patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls using combined grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumetric features, incorporated a deep neural network approach on an individual basis, and tested the generalisability of the classification models using independent validation sites.
We found that statistically reliable schizophrenia-related grey matter abnormalities primarily occurred in regions that included the superior temporal gyrus extending to the temporal pole, insular cortex, orbital and middle frontal cortices, middle cingulum and thalamus. Evaluated using leave-one-site-out cross-validation, the performance of the classification of schizophrenia achieved by our findings from eight independent research sites were: accuracy, 77.19–85.74%; sensitivity, 75.31–89.29% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.797–0.909.
These results suggest that, by using deep-learning techniques, multidimensional neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia are capable of robustly discriminating patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls, findings which could facilitate clinical diagnosis and treatment in schizophrenia.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of RFRP-3 synchronized with photoperiods on regulating the seasonal reproduction of striped hamsters. The striped hamsters were raised separately under long-day (LD; 16 h light/8 h dark), medium-day (MD; 12 h light/12 h dark) or short-day (SD; 8 h light/16 h dark) conditions for 8 weeks. RFRP-3 and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) mRNA levels in the hypothalamus, testis or ovaries in three groups were detected using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Melatonin (MLT), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations in serum were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The correlation between RFRP-3 and GnRH mRNA and FSH and LH concentrations was also analyzed. MLT negatively regulated the expression of RFRP-3. Significant differences for RFRP-3 mRNA existed in the three groups, which positively correlated with the GnRH and the FSH and LH concentrations. RFRP-3 mRNA levels in the hypothalamus were significantly higher than those in ovaries or testis. RFRP-3 levels in the hypothalamus were significantly lower in female than in male under SD conditions, while those in ovaries were significantly higher than those in testes under LD conditions. MLT decreased RFRP neuron activity, and RFRP-3 regulated the reproduction of striped hamsters.