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The association between egg consumption and diabetes is inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association between long-term egg consumption and its trajectory with diabetes in Chinese adults. A total of 8 545 adults aged ≥ 18 years old who attended the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991 to 2009 were included in this analysis. Egg consumption at each survey was assessed by a three-day 24-hour recall and weighed food record methods. The consumption trajectories of egg were modelled with the latent class group approach. Diabetes was diagnosed based on fasting blood glucose in 2009. Logistic regression was used to examine the association. The mean age of the study population was 50.9 (SD 15.1) years. 11.1% had diabetes in 2009. Egg consumption nearly doubled in 2009 from 16 g/day in 1991. Compared with the first quartile of egg consumption (0-9.0 g/day), the adjusted OR (95% CI) of diabetes for the second (9.1-20.6 g/day), third (20.7-37.5 g/day), and fourth (≥ 37.6 g/day) quartiles were 1.29 (95% CI 1.03, 1.62), 1.37 (95% CI 1.09, 1.72), and 1.25 (95% CI 1.04, 1.64), respectively (P for trend = 0.029). Three trajectory groups of egg consumption were identified. Compared with Group 1 (30.7%, low baseline intake and slight increase), both Group 2 (62.2%, medium baseline intake and increase) and Group 3 (7.1%, high baseline intake and decrease) were associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for diabetes. The results suggested that higher egg consumption was positively associated with the risk of diabetes in Chinese adults.
This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the associations between dietary fibre (DF) intake and depressive symptoms in a general adult population in Tianjin, China. A total of 24 306 participants (mean age 41 years; range 18–91 years) were enrolled. DF intake was assessed using a validated self-administered FFQ. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Socio-demographic, behavioural, health status and dietary factors were adjusted. In men, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for total, soluble, vegetable and soya DF, OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·83 (95 % CI 0·69, 0·99), 0·74 (95 % CI 0·63, 0·87), 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·96) and 0·69 (95 % CI 0·60, 0·81), respectively. In women, compared with participants in the lowest quartiles for vegetable and soya DF, the OR for depressive symptoms in the highest were 0·77 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·93) and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·70, 0·95), respectively. No association was found between total or soluble DF intake and depressive symptoms in women. No association was found between insoluble, cereal, fruit or tuber DF intake and depressive symptoms in men and women. Linear associations between DF intake and depressive symptoms were only detected for soya DF (men, β = –0·148, P < 0·0001; women, β = –0·069, P = 0·04). Results suggest that intake of soluble, vegetable and soya DF was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. These results should be confirmed through prospective and interventional studies.
Family coaggregation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and schizophrenia have been presented in previous studies. The shared genetic and environmental factors among psychiatric disorders remain elusive.
This nationwide population-based study examined familial coaggregation of major psychiatric disorders in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals with ASD. Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify 26 667 individuals with ASD and 67 998 FDRs of individuals with ASD. The cohort was matched in 1:4 ratio to 271 992 controls. The relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of ADHD, ASD, BD, MDD and schizophrenia were assessed among FDRs of individuals with ASD and ASD with intellectual disability (ASD-ID).
FDRs of individuals with ASD have higher RRs of major psychiatric disorders compared with controls: ASD 17.46 (CI 15.50–19.67), ADHD 3.94 (CI 3.72–4.17), schizophrenia 3.05 (CI 2.74–3.40), BD 2.22 (CI 1.98–2.48) and MDD 1.88 (CI 1.76–2.00). Higher RRs of schizophrenia (4.47, CI 3.95–5.06) and ASD (18.54, CI 16.18–21.23) were observed in FDRs of individuals with both ASD-ID, compared with ASD only.
The risk for major psychiatric disorders was consistently elevated across all types of FDRs of individuals with ASD. FDRs of individuals with ASD-ID are at further higher risk for ASD and schizophrenia. Our results provide leads for future investigation of shared etiologic pathways of ASD, ID and major psychiatric disorders and highlight the importance of mental health care delivered to at-risk families for early diagnoses and interventions.
Fullerene dimers have attracted extensive attention due to their unique structures and fascinating properties. Here, fullerene dimer derivatives with four to six carbon atoms in the esters are designed and synthesized. The property differences that caused by the carbon number in the esters of the fullerene dimers are investigated by performing their electrochemical, optical, and photoelectric measurements. As the carbon atom numbers in the esters increase from four to five and six, the absorption intensities increase to 1.6- and 4.4-folds. The intensities of the fluorescence spectra increase to 1.8- and 5.2-folds. Their photocurrent increases to 2- and 7-folds under the irradiation of a 405-nm laser. The LUMO energy levels move downward slightly from −3.89 to −3.90 and −3.92 eV, respectively. Our results indicate that as the carbon number increases, the carbon chain lengths in the ester structures increase, very slight effects produced on the energy levels of the fullerene dimers, but strongly contribute to their chemical activities and thus the photoelectronic efficiencies.
This paper presents the design of frequency-tunable dual-band, tri-band and quad-band bandpass filters (BPFs). The proposed three BPFs can be independently tuned and individually switched by varying the capacitances of the varactors. In the designed tunable dual-band BPF (TD-BPF), common input/output feed lines are utilized for two tunable dual-mode resonators (TDRs). Further, three TDRs and four TDRs are employed to achieve tunable tri-band BPF (TT-BPF) and tunable quad-band BPF (TQ-BPF), respectively. Then, the TD-BPF and the TT-BPF are fabricated and measured to verify individual tunability and independent switchability. For the TD-BPF, the measurement results show that the center frequency (CF) of the first passband varies from 1.37 to 1.62 GHz, and the CF of the second passband varies from 2.3 to 2.64 GHz. In the measured TT-BPF, the tuning ranges of CFs of three passbands are 1.3–1.5 GHz, 2.36–2.6 GHz, and 3–3.54 GHz, respectively.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Recent evidence has suggested the protective effects of honey consumption against the metabolic syndrome, but the association between honey intake and NAFLD is still unclear. We investigated how the consumption frequency of honey was associated with NAFLD in the general population. This was a cross-sectional study of 21 979 adults aged 20–90 years. NAFLD was diagnosed based on the ultrasound-diagnosed fatty liver without significant alcohol intake and other liver diseases. Diet information, including consumption frequency of honey, was assessed by a validated 100-item FFQ. OR with 95 % CI were calculated by the binary logistic regression model, adjusting for confounding factors identified by the directed acyclic graph. Overall, 6513 adults (29·6 %) had NAFLD. Compared with participants consuming ≤1 time/week of honey, the multivariable OR of NAFLD were 0·86 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97) for 2–6 times/week and 1·10 (95 % CI 0·95, 1·27) for ≥1 times/d (Pfor trend = 0·90). The results were generally similar in subgroups of BMI at a cut-point of 24·0 kg/m2 (Pfor interaction = 0·10). In this large-scale study, consuming honey 2–6 times/week was inversely associated with NAFLD, whereas consuming honey ≥1 times/d had no association with NAFLD. These results need replication in other large-scale prospective studies.
Flavonoid-rich foods have shown a beneficial effect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in short-term randomised trials. It is uncertain whether the usual dietary intake of flavonoids may benefit patients with NAFLD. The present study evaluated the association between the usual intake of flavonoids and the risk of progression in NAFLD. The prospective study included 2694 adults from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study. Face-to-face interviews using a seventy-nine-item FFQ were administered to assess habitual dietary flavonoid intake, while abdominal ultrasonography was conducted to evaluate the presence and degree of NAFLD, with measurements conducted 3 years apart. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher flavonoid intakes were gradely associated with reduced risks of worsen NAFLD status. The relative risks of worsening (v. non-worsening) NAFLD in the highest (v. lowest) quintile were 0·71 (95 % CI 0·54, 0·93) for total flavonoids, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·95) for flavanones, 0·74 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·96) for flavan-3-ols, 0·90 (95 % CI 0·68, 1·18) for flavonols, 0·73 (95 % CI 0·56, 0·93) for flavones, 0·79 (95 % CI 0·61, 1·02) for isoflavones and 0·74 (95 % CI 0·57, 0·96) for anthocyanins. An L-shaped relationship was observed between total flavonoid intake and the risk of NAFLD progression. Path analyses showed that the association between flavonoids and NAFLD progression was mediated by decreases in serum cholesterol and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. This prospective study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with a lower risk of NAFLD progression in the elderly overweight/obese Chinese population.
Schizotypy refers to schizophrenia-like traits below the clinical threshold in the general population. The pathological development of schizophrenia has been postulated to evolve from the initial coexistence of ‘brain disconnection’ and ‘brain connectivity compensation’ to ‘brain connectivity decompensation’.
In this study, we examined the brain connectivity changes associated with schizotypy by combining brain white matter structural connectivity, static and dynamic functional connectivity analysis of diffusion tensor imaging data and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data. A total of 87 participants with a high level of schizotypal traits and 122 control participants completed the experiment. Group differences in whole-brain white matter structural connectivity probability, static mean functional connectivity strength, dynamic functional connectivity variability and stability among 264 brain sub-regions of interests were investigated.
We found that individuals with high schizotypy exhibited increased structural connectivity probability within the task control network and within the default mode network; increased variability and decreased stability of functional connectivity within the default mode network and between the auditory network and the subcortical network; and decreased static mean functional connectivity strength mainly associated with the sensorimotor network, the default mode network and the task control network.
These findings highlight the specific changes in brain connectivity associated with schizotypy and indicate that both decompensatory and compensatory changes in structural connectivity within the default mode network and the task control network in the context of whole-brain functional disconnection may be an important neurobiological correlate in individuals with high schizotypy.
A higher dietary intake or serum concentration of betaine has been associated with greater lean body mass in middle-aged and older adults. However, it remains unknown whether betaine intake is associated with age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass (SMM). We assessed the association between dietary betaine intake and relative changes in SMM after 3 years in middle-aged adults. A total of 1242 participants aged 41–60 years from the Guangzhou Nutrition and Health Study 2011–2013 and 2014–2017 with body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were included. A face-to-face questionnaire was used to collect general baseline information. After adjustment for potential confounders, multiple linear regression found that energy-adjusted dietary betaine intake was significantly and positively associated with relative changes (i.e. percentage loss or increase) in SMM of legs, limbs and appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) over 3 years of follow-up (β 0·322 (se 0·157), 0·309 (se 0·142) and 0·303 (se 0·145), respectively; P < 0·05). The ANCOVA models revealed that participants in the highest betaine tertile had significantly less loss in SMM of limbs and ASMI and more increase in SMM of legs over 3 years of follow-up, compared with those in the bottom betaine tertile (all Ptrend < 0·05). In conclusion, our findings suggest that elevated higher dietary betaine intake may be associated with less loss of SMM of legs, limbs and ASMI in middle-aged adults.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Tubulointerstitial damage in lupus nephritis (LN) is a strong predictor of progression to chronic kidney disease and end stage renal disease (ESRD). While complement activation mediates glomerular injury, the role of complement in renal tubular damage has not been evaluated. We investigated the association between complement activation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Patients with LN were selected randomly between July 2014 - July 2016. Chromogenic immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded, 4-µm human renal biopsy sections using unconjugated, murine anti-human Complement C9 (Hycult Biotech, clone X197) as a marker of the terminal complement activation. Positive control is C3 glomerulopathy and negative control is normal kidney. Tubular basement membrane C9 staining intensity were analyzed on semiquantitative scale 0 to 3 by a renal pathologist. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy were categorized into low (0–10%), medium (11–20%), or high (≥21%). Clinical parameters were assessed at time of biopsy and 6 months post biopsy. Bivariate associations were assessed between presence of tubular C9 (C9+) and other covariates. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Renal biopsies from 30 LN studied, 23 (77%) of which had proliferative LN. There were 24 (80%) women, mean (SD) age 33 (12) years. Positive tubular C9 staining was observed in 7/30 (23%) biopsies. At time of renal biopsy, C9+ patients had significantly higher urine protein, compared to C9- patients: median (IQR) 6.2g (3.3-13.1) vs. 2.4g (1.3-4.6), p<0.01. The differences persisted at 6 months after induction therapy: 1.08g (1.0-8.3) in C9+ vs. 0.68g (0.2-2.1) in C9- patients, p = 0.06. There was no significant difference in creatinine at renal biopsy between the two groups. Tubular C9 deposition was associated with interstitial fibrosis: 49% had severe interstitial fibrosis vs. none in the C9- group, p = <0.01. Higher proportion of C9+ patients had moderate NIH Chronicity index: 42.9% vs 8.7% in the C9- group, p = 0.07. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Tubular C9 deposition is significantly associated with proteinuria, interstitial fibrosis and increased chronicity which predict progression to ESRD and high mortality. This finding suggests that complement activation in the tubules may be linked to proteinuria and contribute to mechanism in tubulointerstitial damage in LN.
Cognitive decline in advanced age is closely related to dementia. The trajectory of cognitive function in older Chinese is yet to be fully investigated. We aimed to investigate the trajectories of cognitive function in a nationally representative sample of older people living in China and to explore the potential determinants of these trajectories.
This study included 2,038 cognitively healthy persons aged 65–104 years at their first observation in the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey from 2002 to 2014. Cognitive function was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Group-based trajectory modeling was used to identify potential heterogeneity of longitudinal changes over the 12 years and to investigate associations between baseline predictors of group membership and these trajectories.
Three trajectories were identified according to the following types of changes in MMSE scores: slow decline (14.0%), rapid decline (4.5%), and stable function (81.5%). Older age, female gender, having no schooling, a low frequency of leisure activity, and a low baseline MMSE score were associated with the slow decline trajectory. Older age, body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 kg/m2, and having more than one cardiovascular disease (CVD) were associated with the rapid decline trajectory.
Three trajectories of cognitive function were identified in the older Chinese population. The identified determinants of these trajectories could be targeted for developing prevention and intervention strategies for dementia.
Thermal barrier coating is a high-temperature protective technology widely used in industrial gas turbines. However, the failure of coating peeling because of the generation of thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the interface during service hinders its further application. In this study, Raman spectroscopy and wedge indentation are used to determine the TGO residual stress and the interface energy release rate, respectively. The effect of TGO on the interfacial fracture toughness during the growth process was discussed. Raman spectroscopy test results show that the residual stress of TGO is about 0.5 GPa. Wedge indentation test results illustrate that high-temperature heat treatment could accelerate the interface degradation of thermal barrier coatings. Stress analysis and test research demonstrate that the microcracks induced by compressive stress of TGO will propagate with increasing heating time, ending with failure of barrier coatings.
The catch of Japanese butterfish, Psenopsis anomala in Taiwan is greater than those of any other nation; however, the biology, particularly the age and growth, of this economically important fish species is little known. This study describes the age and growth of P. anomala based on 734 specimens (340 females, 363 males, 31 unsexed) caught by trawl fishery in the north-eastern waters off Taiwan from March 2007 to July 2008. The age of specimens was estimated by counting the growth annuli in sagittal otoliths. The periodicity of annulus deposition on otolith was estimated to be one year with opaque zone deposited between July and August based on marginal increment analysis. The maximum age for both sexes was estimated to be ~4. The female portion of the population was dominated by the 3+ age class, while the male portion was dominated by the 2∞ age class. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth function with standard error estimated based on the observed length at age using a non-linear method are as follows: L∞ = 25.47 ± 0.65 cm, k = 0.30 ± 0.03 year−1, and t0 = −1.84 ± 0.16 year for females (n = 350), and L∞ = 22.39 ± 0.45 cm, k = 0.46 ± 0.04 year−1, and t0 = −1.38 ± 0.13 year for males (n = 378). The growth performances of P. anomala reported from different geographic regions were compared, and the potential influences of sample size distribution on the estimated growth parameters were further discussed.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China, spread rapidly throughout China and gradually to some countries abroad. How is the development of an epidemic controlled? Early diagnosis is one of the important contents in prevention and control. COVID-19 patients with early mild pneumonia often lack typical evidence to make a definitive diagnosis. Based on the analysis of the cases of 4 patients, this article finds that early diagnosis requires a combination of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, imaging, and etiology, with particular emphasis on epidemiology history and chest computed tomography (CT) manifestations.
This paper is a retrospective analysis of the sole transfer of monopronucleated zygotes (1PN) embryos both in in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to determine the value of transferring embryos formed from 1PN. In fresh cycles, 1PN cleavage-stage embryos (1PN cleavage fresh) were transferred. In frozen–thawed cycles, 1PN blastocyst-stage embryos (1PN blast frozen) were transferred. We used comparison groups: for fresh cycles, 2PN cleavage-stage embryos (2PN cleavage fresh) were transferred; and for frozen–thawed cycles, 2PN blastocyst-stage embryos (2PN blast frozen) were transferred. Comparison groups were matched for cycle and patient characteristics to the 1PN group. Finally, for fresh cycles, live birth rates (LBR) in the 1PN cleavage group were significantly lower than those in 2PN cleavage group, both for IVF [LBR = 7.64% vs. pregnancy rate (PR) = 22.12%, P = 0.003, respectively] and ICSI (LBR = 0% vs. LBR = 20.00%, P < 0.001, respectively). For frozen–thawed IVF cycles, the PR in the 1PN blastocyst group were comparable with those of the 2PN blastocyst group (1PN: LBR = 33.14% vs. 2PN: LBR = 37.24%, P = 0.289, respectively), while in ICSI, the PR in the 1PN blastocyst group were lower than those in the 2PN blastocyst group (LBR = 15.25% vs. LBR = 40.68%, P = 0.002, respectively). So, for IVF, blastocyst culture was capable of selecting normal 1PN embryos for transfer and achieves satisfying outcomes. However, for ICSI, blastocyst culture was not effective enough to eliminate abnormal embryos and 1PN embryo transfer needed to be treated with caution.