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To investigate the hypothesis that folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake before conception and during pregnancy reduce the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and to examine the joint effect of folic acid supplementation and dietary folate intake on the risk of SGA.
Participants were interviewed by trained study interviewers using a standardized and structured questionnaire. Information on birth outcomes and maternal complications was abstracted from medical records and dietary information was collected via a semi-quantitative FFQ before conception and during pregnancy.
A birth cohort data analysis using the 2010–2012 Gansu Provincial Maternity and Child Care Hospital.
Women (n 8758) and their children enrolled in the study.
Folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA (OR = 0·72, 95 % CI 0·60, 0·86), with the reduced risk seen mainly for SGA at ≥37 weeks of gestational age (OR = 0·70, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·85) and nulliparous SGA (OR = 0·67, 95 % CI 0·54, 0·84). There was no significant association between dietary folate intake and SGA risk.
Our study suggested that folic acid supplementation was associated with a reduced risk of SGA and the risk varied by preterm status and parity.
The microbiota–gut–brain axis, especially the microbial tryptophan (Trp) biosynthesis and metabolism pathway (MiTBamp), may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, studies on the MiTBamp in MDD are lacking. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gut microbiota composition and the MiTBamp in MDD patients.
We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of stool samples from 26 MDD patients and 29 healthy controls (HCs). In addition to the microbiota community and the MiTBamp analyses, we also built a classification based on the Random Forests (RF) and Boruta algorithm to identify the gut microbiota as biomarkers for MDD.
The Bacteroidetes abundance was strongly reduced whereas that of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the MDD patients compared with the abundance in the HCs. Most noteworthy, the MDD patients had increased levels of Bifidobacterium, which is commonly used as a probiotic. Four Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) orthologies (KOs) (K01817, K11358, K01626, K01667) abundances in the MiTBamp were significantly lower in the MDD group. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between the K01626 abundance and the HAMD scores in the MDD group. Finally, RF classification at the genus level can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.890.
The present findings enabled a better understanding of the changes in gut microbiota and the related Trp pathway in MDD. Alterations of the gut microbiota may have the potential as biomarkers for distinguishing MDD patients form HCs.
To explore whether and how group cognitive-behavioural therapy (GCBT) plus medication differs from medication alone for the treatment of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD).
Hundred and seventy patients were randomly assigned to the GCBT plus duloxetine (n=89) or duloxetine group (n=81). The primary outcomes were Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) response and remission rates. The explorative secondary measures included score reductions from baseline in the HAMA total, psychic, and somatic anxiety subscales (HAMA-PA, HAMA-SA), the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Severity Subscale of Clinical Global Impression Scale, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 4-week, 8-week, and 3-month follow-up.
At 4 weeks, HAMA response (GCBT group 57.0% vs. control group 24.4%, p=0.000, Cohen’s d=0.90) and remission rates (GCBT group 21.5% vs. control group 6.2%, p=0.004; d=0.51), and most secondary outcomes (all p<0.05, d=0.36−0.77) showed that the combined therapy was superior. At 8 weeks, all the primary and secondary significant differences found at 4 weeks were maintained with smaller effect sizes (p<0.05, d=0.32−0.48). At 3-month follow-up, the combined therapy was only significantly superior in the HAMA total (p<0.045, d=0.43) and HAMA-PA score reductions (p<0.001, d=0.77). Logistic regression showed superiority of the combined therapy for HAMA response rates [odds ratio (OR)=2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02−4.42, p=0.04] and remission rates (OR=2.80, 95% CI 1.27−6.16, p=0.01).
Compared with duloxetine alone, GCBT plus duloxetine showed significant treatment response for GAD over a shorter period of time, particularly for psychic anxiety symptoms, which may suggest that GCBT was effective in changing cognitive style.
Bismuth (Bi)-based photocatalytic materials are widely used in the field of photocatalytic degradation of wastewater. In this study, β-Bi2O3/BiOBr heterojunction photocatalysts were prepared by an in situ chemical transformation method. BiOBr molecules are arrayed to cross each other to form a pore around β-Bi2O3. The prepared photocatalyst had a large specific surface area and excellent adsorption and photocatalytic properties. The β-Bi2O3/BiOBr with a molecular ratio of 11.1% had the highest catalytic activity. The result of a degradation experiment, performed with Rhodamine B (RhB) as the target pollutant, revealed that the degradation rate reached 99.85% after 25 min under visible light irradiation. The pore structure can adsorb contaminants and the heterojunction facilitates the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs to enhance the photocatalytic properties. The high adsorption performance and heterojunction achieved higher photocatalytic efficiency. This semiconductor photocatalyst with high adsorption performance provides a new approach to control water pollution.
In this paper we are concerned with modelling the reliability of a system subject to external shocks. In a run shock model, the system fails when a sequence of shocks above a threshold arrive in succession. Nevertheless, using a single threshold to measure the severity of a shock is too critical in real practice. To this end, we develop a generalized run shock model with two thresholds. We employ a phase-type distribution to model the damage size and the inter-arrival time of shocks, which is highly versatile and may be used to model many quantitative features of random phenomenon. Furthermore, we use the Markovian property to construct a multi-state system which degrades with the arrival of shocks. We also provide a numerical example to illustrate our results.
Transplanting single seedlings rather than seedlings in clumps has been increasingly attractive in hybrid rice production in China due to reduced seed requirements and higher grain yield. This study was conducted to determine grain yield and nitrogen (N) utilization in response to reductions in the N rate in hybrid rice under single-seedling transplanting. Field experiments were done in 2015 and 2016 on a moderate to high fertility soil at the Experimental Farm of Hunan Agricultural University, China. The hybrid rice cultivar Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) was used in 2015, and two hybrid cultivars LYPJ and Xiangliangyou 900 were used the next year. In each year, the rice plants transplanted with a single seedling per hill were grown with three N rates, including the usual N rate (150 kg ha–1) and two reduced N rates (120 and 90 kg ha–1). Grain yield, yield attributes, and N uptake and use efficiency were determined for each N rate. Significant reduction in grain yield was observed in only one of three cultivar-year combinations when N rate was reduced by 20% (from 150 to 120 kg ha–1), and the magnitude of yield reduction was only 4%. Although significant reduction in grain yield was observed in two of the three cultivar-year combinations when N rate reduced by 40% (to 90 kg ha–1), the highest yield reduction was only 7%. Yield attributes were generally changed slightly when N rate was reduced by 20%, while compensation among yield attributes and N utilization characteristics could explain why a 40% reduction in N rate did not result in substantial yield loss. Partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN) was increased by 21–24% and 56–63% with 20% and 40% reductions in the N rate, respectively. The higher PFPN with a reduced N rate was attributed to higher recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) or to both higher REN and internal N use efficiency. Our study suggests that reducing N rate does not necessarily result in yield loss due to compensation among yield components and increased N use efficiency in hybrid rice transplanted as single seedlings under moderate to high soil fertility conditions.
The development of electrocatalysts with high activity and low cost has attracted growing attentions in recent years. Herein, we reported the Mn-doped CoP nanosheet arrays on flexible activated carbon cloth (Mn–CoP/CC) for the effective oxygen evolution reaction (OER) at low overpotential and high current density. Due to the novel 3D nanostructures of the carbon cloth and doping effect of the Mn element, the Mn doped CoP/CC electrode delivered the best overpotential of 317 mV for water splitting with the current density of 10 mA/cm2, a Tafel slope of ∼65.1 mV/dec, and excellent stability over 16 h in 1.0 mol/L KOH, which is superior or comparable to the most of the reported cobalt-based catalysts. Thus outstanding electrocatalytic performance originates from the Mn doping effect, which resulted in increased surface area and fast charge-transfer. It is believed that these findings would help us to develop high effective and stable electrocatalysts for water splitting.
The neuropsychological origins of negative syndrome of schizophrenia remain elusive. Evidence from behavioural studies, which utilised emotion-inducing pictures to elicit motivated behaviour generally reported that that schizophrenia patients experienced similar affective experience as healthy individuals but failed to translate emotional salience to motivated behaviour, a phenomenon called emotion–behaviour decoupling. However, a few studies have examined emotion–behaviour decoupling in non-psychotic high-risk populations, who are relatively unaffected by medication effects.
In this study, we examined the nature and extent of emotion–behaviour decoupling in in three independent samples (65 schizophrenia patients v. 63 controls; 40 unaffected relatives v. 45 controls; and 32 individuals with social anhedonia v. 32 controls). We administered an experimental task to examine their affective experience and its coupling with behaviour, using emotion-inducing slides, and allowed participants to alter stimulus exposure using button-pressing to seek pleasure or avoid aversion.
Schizophrenia patients reported similar affective experiences as their controls, while their unaffected relatives and individuals with high levels of social anhedonia exhibited attenuated affective experiences, in particular in the arousal aspect. Compared with their respective control groups, all of the three groups showed emotion–behaviour decoupling.
Our findings support that both genetically and behaviourally high-risk groups exhibit emotion–behaviour decoupling. The familial association apparently supports its role as a putative trait marker for schizophrenia.
The hydrogen concentration and composition of garnets in the ultrahigh pressure eclogites at Shuanghe, eastern Dabieshan, were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and electron microprobe analysis. The OH absorption bands can be divided into four groups: (1) 3635–3655 cm–1; (2) 3600–3630 cm–1; (3) 3540–3580 cm–1; and (4) 3400–3450 cm–1 and the water content ranges from 45 to 2529 ppm. Based on the behaviour of the OH absorption band and the relationship between water content and the composition of garnets, the samples can be divided into two classes: samples with >400 ppm H2O and samples with ≤400 ppm H2O. The water content of the former shows an obvious positive correlation with Ca atoms and a negative correlation with the Si, Mg and Fe2+ atoms per 12 anions, whereas the water content of the latter shows no obvious linear correlation with cations. It is concluded that the major mechanism of hydroxyl incorporation in garnets with >400 ppm H2O is by the coupled substitution 4H +Z□ → □+ZSi in the tetrahedral site, and that several mechanisms are responsible for OH incorporation in garnets with ≤400 ppm H2O.
Carbon nanodots (CDs) have generated enormous excitement because of their superiority in water solubility, chemical inertness, low toxicity, ease of functionalization and resistance to photobleaching. Here we report a facile thermal pyrolysis route to prepare CDs with high quantum yield (QY) using citric acid as the carbon source and ethylene diamine derivatives (EDAs) including triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) and polyene polyamine (PEPA) as the passivation agents. We find that the CDs prepared from EDAs, such as TETA, TEPA and PEPA, show relatively high photoluminescence (PL) QY (11.4, 10.6, and 9.8%, respectively) at λex of 465 nm. The cytotoxicity of the CDs has been investigated through in vitro and in vivo bio-imaging studies. The results indicate that these CDs possess low toxicity and good biocompatibility. The unique properties such as the high PL QY at large excitation wave length and the low toxicity of the resulting CDs make them promising fluorescent nanoprobes for applications in optical bio-imaging and biosensing.
We examine whether the industry expertise of independent directors affects board monitoring effectiveness. We find that the presence of independent directors with industry experience on a firm’s audit committee significantly curtails firms’ earnings management. In addition, a greater representation of independent directors with industry expertise on a firm’s compensation committee reduces chief executive officer (CEO) excess compensation, and a greater presence of such directors on the full board increases the CEO turnover-performance sensitivity and improves acquirer returns from diversifying acquisitions. Overall, the evidence is consistent with the hypothesis that having relevant industry expertise enhances independent directors’ ability to perform their monitoring function.
In this study, a novel hybrid block copolymer containing POSS (BCP), poly(methacrylisobutyl-POSS)-b-poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMAiBuPOSS-b-PMMA) was synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The structure and molecular weight were characterized via 1H NMR and GPC. BCP was creatively used as the compatibilizer to overcome the bad compatibility of epoxy and POSS in their blend system. SEM and dynamic mechanical thermal analyses (DMTA) were used to observe the surface morphology and thermal–mechanical behaviors of the resultant products. We found that the amount of microaggregation domains of POSS decreased, while the nano ones increased, when BCP content increased. All the aggregation domains were distributed in epoxy matrix uniformly at nanoscale with the addition of 10 phr BCP and 5 phr POSS monomers. The results indicated that BCP could effectively improve the compatibility between epoxy resin and POSS owing to its amphiphilicity in DGEBA. The fracture behavior of products transformed from brittle fracture to ductile fracture gradually with the increase of BCP, whereas the Tg and E′ decreased.
An all-solid-state single-frequency 1064 nm laser with a
pulse width, 500 Hz repetition rate and 700 mJ single pulse energy is designed using seed injection and a three-stage master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) construction. Using this as a basis, research on long-pulse laser frequency doubling is carried out. By designing and optimizing the lithium triborate (LBO) crystal, the theoretically calculated maximum conversion efficiency
reaches 68% at
is 33% at
. Generation of 212 mJ pulses of green light with a repetition rate as high as 500 Hz is obtained from a fundamental energy of 700 mJ. The experimental conversion efficiency reaches 31% and the power stability is better than
Activated carbon adsorbents with superhigh specific surface areas (SHACs), which are used as adsorbents, were prepared by chemical activation of petroleum coke with potassium hydroxide. We investigated the influence of specific surface area on hydrogen desorption capacity using SHACs with the same pore size distribution, whereas the effect of pore size distribution on hydrogen desorption capacity was studied using SHACs with same specific surface area. Results revealed that hydrogen desorption capacity (N) increased with higher specific surface area (S) of SHAC adsorbents, according to the linear relation: N = k·S + b (k > 0). At 273 K and 9.0 MPa, hydrogen desorption capacity of 20.96 mmol/g (4.02 wt%) was observed on a SHAC adsorbent with a specific surface area of 3348 m2/g. There was a linear relationship between hydrogen desorption capacity and mesopore percentage in SHAC adsorbents, described as: N = k2·Xmic + b (k2 > 0). Hydrogen desorption per unit mesopore surface amounted to 0.72 mmol/m2.
Cu–In–Ga precursor thin films were deposited onto soda lime glass by magnetron cosputtering CuIn and CuGa alloy targets. After that, Cu(In,Ga)Se2(CIGSe) absorbers were formed by selenizing those alloy precursors with Se vapor at 550 °C. The influence of the precursor temperature on the properties of CIGSe thin film was investigated. The results show that a lot of pinholes existed in the CIGSe thin film produced by selenizing the Cu–In–Ga alloy precursor, which was sputtering deposited at ambient temperature. After sputtering substrate temperature of 250 °C was applied, pinholes were avoided. The surface roughness of Cu–In–Ga precursor increased with the increase of sputtering substrate temperature. Due to the volume expansion of selenization process, even the precursor with high surface roughness could be converted to smooth and compact CIGSe thin film.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a lifestyle intervention programme, combined with a daily low-glycaemic index meal replacement, on body-weight and glycaemic control in subjects with impaired glucose regulation (IGR). Subjects with IGR were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n 46) and a control group (n 42). Both groups received health counselling at baseline. The intervention group also received a daily meal replacement and intensive lifestyle intervention to promote healthy eating habits during the first 3 months of the study, and follow-up visits performed monthly until the end of the 1-year study. Outcome measurements included changes in plasma glucose, glycated Hb (HbA1c), plasma lipids, body weight, blood pressure and body composition (such as body fat mass and visceral fat area). The results showed that body-weight loss after 1 year was significant in the intervention group compared with the control group ( − 1·8 (sem 0·35) v.− 0·6 (sem 0·40) 2·5 kg, P< 0·05). The 2 h plasma glucose concentration decreased 1·24 mmol/l in the intervention group and increased 0·85 mmol/l in the control group (P< 0·05) compared with their baseline, respectively. A 5 kg body-weight loss at 1 year was associated with a decrease of 1·49 mmol/l in 2 h plasma glucose (P< 0·01). The incidence of normal glucose regulation (NGR) in the two groups was significantly different (P= 0·001). In conclusion, the combination of regular contact, lifestyle advice and meal replacement is beneficial in promoting IGR to NGR.
Two types of metasedimentary rocks occur in the Trans-North China Orogen of the North China Craton. One type consists of highly metamorphosed supracrustal rocks with protoliths of mature cratonic shale, called khondalites, as found in the Lüliang Complex; rocks of the other type are also highly metamorphosed but less mature, as represented by the Wanzi supracrustal assemblage in the Fuping Complex. U–Pb isotopic data for detrital zircons from khondalites show a provenance dominated by 1.9–2.1 Ga Palaeoproterozoic rocks. These detrital zircons display a wide range of εHf values from −16.0 to +9.2 and give Hf isotopic model ages mostly around 2.3 Ga. The high positive εHf values approach those for the depleted mantle at 2.1 Ga, highlighting a juvenile crustal growth event in Palaeoproterozoic times. Hf isotopic data also imply that c. 2.6 Ga old crustal material was involved in the Palaeoproterozoic magmatic event. These data are similar to those for the khondalitic rocks from the interior of the Western Block of the North China Craton, suggesting a common provenance. In contrast, other metasedimentary rocks in the Trans-North China Orogen, such as the Wanzi supracrustal assemblage in the Fuping Complex, have a source region with both Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean rocks. Their detrital zircon Hf isotopic data indicate reworking of old crustal material and a lack of significant juvenile Palaeoproterozoic magmatic input. These rocks are similar to the coevally deposited meta-sedimentary rocks in the interior of the Eastern Block. We propose that the Lüliang khondalites were deposited on the eastern margin of the Western Block in a passive continental margin environment and were thrust eastward later during collision with the Eastern Block. Other metasedimentary rocks in the Trans-North China Orogen were deposited on the western margin of the Eastern Block in a continental arc environment. Our data support the eastward subduction model for the Palaeoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the North China Craton.
We selected 133 solar microwave bursts (SMBs) recorded by SGD and 133 CMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO from November 1999 through September 2003. These SMBs are associated with CMEs and flares. We analyzed the characteristics of the SMBs, including duration, flux peak, burst type, and spectral index. Correlated events were distinguished by time and the location of flare associated with the SMB. We find that (1)The duration of SMBs associated with narrow(0°<width<20°)/normal CMEs(20°<width<120°) or slow CMEs is below 40 minutes. (2)The duration of SMBs associated with Halo-like CMEs(120°<width<360°) or fast CMEs is from several minutes to 200 minutes. (3)The flux peak of SMBs associated with narrow CMEs/normal CMEs or slow CMEs is below 400sfu. (4)The flux peak of SMBs associated with Halo-like CMEs or fast CMEs is from several sfu to several thousands sfu. (5)the majority of SMBs,which are associated with Full Halo CMEs, are Complex/GB bursts. The majority of SMBs, which are associated with narrow CMEs/normal CMEs, are simple bursts. (6)U-shape spectra are observed. The spectra of SMB associated with CME is very flat when f>fmax. A statistical result suggest that CME/flares and SMBs is probably a different manifestation of the same physical process. CME/flare and SMB have intrinsically a physical relationship.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Ninety-nine individual plants of a segregating F2 population of a wheat single cross Wen 6×CP184.108.40.206.1 were used in this study to find out whether CP220.127.116.11.1, a derivative of Triticum spelta var. album, carries a novel stripe rust resistance gene other than Yr5. Using molecular marker technology, it was found that only one out of 150 SSR primers could produce amplified polymorphism, and a marker, Xgwm155-147bp, located on chromosome 3A, was found to be linked to the stripe rust resistance gene identified with a genetic distance of 40.5 cM, indicating that the latter was also located on chromosome 3A. Since the only Yr gene previously reported to originate from T. spelta var. album is Yr5, located on 2BL, the only logical inference is that there might be other Yr gene (genes) in T. spelta, and the Yr gene identified in the present study might be a novel one. It was temporarily designated YrSp.
In this paper we consider random dynamical systems generated by compositions of one-sided independent and identically distributed random diffeomorphisms of class C2 on a compact manifold. We prove an entropy formula for such random dynamical systems without assuming the SRB condition. This result is the random version of the main result obtained by Ledrappier and Young (The metric entropy of diffeomorphisms. Part II: Relations between entropy, exponents and dimension. Ann. Math. 122 (1985), 540–574).