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Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. We aimed to determine whether intra-abdominal pathologies are an independent risk factor for CLABSI.
We performed a retrospective matched case–control study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal) and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. CLABSI cases that occurred between April 2009 and March 2014 were identified through local infection control databases. For each case, up to 3 controls were matched (National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN] birth weight category, chronological age, and central venous catheter (CVC) dwell time at the time of CLABSI onset). Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression.
We identified 120 cases and 293 controls. According to a matched univariate analysis, the following variables were significant risk factors for CLABSI: active intra-abdominal pathology (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–6.4), abdominal surgery in the prior 7 days (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0–10.9); male sex (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6) and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.9–8.3). According to a multivariate matched analysis, intra-abdominal pathology (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.5–14.1), and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.4–12.2) remained independent risk factors for CLABSI.
The presence of an active intra-abdominal pathology increased the risk of CLABSI by almost 6-fold. Similar to CLABSI in oncology patients, a subgroup of CLABSI with mucosal barrier injury should be considered for infants in the NICU with active intra-abdominal pathology.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the detection of the toxin B gene are replacing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)–based toxin production detection or cell cytotoxicity assay in most laboratories.
To determine the proportion of pediatric patients diagnosed withClostridium difficile infection by PCR who would have also been diagnosed by ELISA and to compare the clinical characteristics of PCR+/ELISA+ vs PCR+/ELISA− patients.
Using the microbiology laboratory information system, stool samples positive for C. difficile by PCR between October 2010 and July 2014 were identified. Using frozen stool specimens, an ELISA for toxin A and B was performed. A retrospective medical chart review was conducted to obtain demographic and clinical data. Duplicate samples were excluded.
A total of 136 PCR-positive samples underwent ELISA testing: 54 (40%) were positive for toxin A or B. The mean (SD) age of the entire cohort was 8.5 (6.2) years. There was no difference in age, gender, clinical manifestation, previous medical problems, and management between patients positive or negative by ELISA. However, patients positive by ELISA were more likely to have had a recent exposure to antibiotics (67.9% vs 50%; crude odds ratio, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.03–4.28]).
In our pediatric population, 60% of patients with C. difficile diagnosed by PCR had no toxin detectable by ELISA. ELISA-negative patients were less likely to have received an antibiotic recently compared with ELISA-positive patients. These results highlight the need to standardize laboratory criteria for the diagnosis of C. difficile infections in children.
Despite surveillance, the Quebec Healthcare-Associated Infections Surveillance Program saw no improvement in vascular access–associated bloodstream infections in hemodialysis (HD). We aimed to determine the infection control measures recommended and implemented in Quebec’s HD units, compliance of local protocols to infection control practice guidelines, and reasons behind the low prevalence of arteriovenous fistulas.
An online survey was elaborated on the basis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines. The questionnaire was validated (construct, content, face validity, and reliability) and sent to all HD units in Quebec (n = 40). Results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, linear regression, and Poisson regression.
Thirty-seven (93%) of 40 HD units participated. Thirty (94%) of the 32 centers where central catheters are inserted have written insertion protocols. Compliance with practice guidelines is good, except for full-body draping during catheter insertion (79%) and ointment use at insertion site (3%). Prevention measures for catheter maintenance are in accordance with guidelines, except for skin disinfection with at least 0.5% chlorhexidine and 70% alcohol (67% compliance) and regular antiseptic ointment use at the insertion site (3%). Before fistula cannulation, skin preparation is suboptimal; forearm hygiene is performed in only 61% of cases. Several factors explain the low rate of fistulas, including patient preference (69%) and lack of surgical resources (39%; P = .01).
Improvement in standardization of care according to practice guidelines is necessary. Fistula rate could be increased by improving access to surgical resources and patient education. Strategies are now being elaborated to address these findings.
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