To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
More than 50% of the global population already lives in urban settlements and urban areas are projected to absorb almost all the global population growth to 2050, amounting to some additional three billion people. Over the next decades the increase in rural population in many developing countries will be overshadowed by population flows to cities. Rural populations globally are expected to peak at a level of 3.5 billion people by around 2020 and decline thereafter, albeit with heterogeneous regional trends. This adds urgency in addressing rural energy access, but our common future will be predominantly urban. Most of urban growth will continue to occur in small-to medium-sized urban centers. Growth in these smaller cities poses serious policy challenges, especially in the developing world. In small cities, data and information to guide policy are largely absent, local resources to tackle development challenges are limited, and governance and institutional capacities are weak, requiring serious efforts in capacity building, novel applications of remote sensing, information, and decision support techniques, and new institutional partnerships. While ‘megacities’ with more than 10 million inhabitants have distinctive challenges, their contribution to global urban growth will remain comparatively small.
Energy-wise, the world is already predominantly urban. This assessment estimates that between 60–80% of final energy use globally is urban, with a central estimate of 75%. Applying national energy (or GHG inventory) reporting formats to the urban scale and to urban administrative boundaries is often referred to as a ‘production’ accounting approach and underlies the above GEA estimate.
It is predicted that global climate change will have significant impacts on the society and economy of the Asia–Pacific region, and that the adoption of measures to tackle global climate change will impose a large economic burden on the region. Also, if the Asia–Pacific region fails to adopt such countermeasures, it has been estimated that its emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) will increase to over 50% of total global emissions by 2100. To respond to such a serious and long-term threat, it is critical to establish communication and evaluation tools for policymakers and scientists in the region. The Integrated Assessment Model provides a convenient framework for combining knowledge from a wide range of disciplines, and is one of the most effective tools to increase the interaction among groups.
The Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) is one of the most frequently used models in the Asia–Pacific region (Kainuma et al., 2003; Shukla et al., 2004). The distinctive features of AIM are: (1) it involves Asian country teams from Japan, China, India, Korea, Thailand, and so on; (2) it has detailed description of technologies; and (3) it uses information from a detailed geographic information system to evaluate and present the distribution of impacts at local and global levels. Besides preparing country models for evaluation at the state and national level, we have also developed global models to analyze international economic relationships and climate impacts in order to evaluate policy options from a global viewpoint.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.