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Computer simulations of migration of planetesimals from beyond the Jupiter’s orbit to the terrestrial planets have been made. Based on obtained arrays of orbital elements of planetesimals and planets during the dynamical lifetimes of planetesimals, we calculated the probabilities of collisions of planetesimals with planets, the Moon, and their embryos. The results of calculations showed that for the total mass of planetesimals of about 200 Earth masses, the mass of water delivered to the Earth from beyond the orbit of Jupiter could be about the mass of the terrestrial oceans. For the growth of the mass of the Earth embryo up to a half of the present mass of the Earth, the mass of water delivered to the embryo could be up to 30% of all water delivered to the Earth from the zone of Jupiter and Saturn. The water of the terrestrial oceans and its D/H ratio could be the result of mixing of water from several exogenic and endogenic sources with large and low D/H ratios. The ratio of the mass of water delivered from beyond the orbit of Jupiter to a planet to the mass of the planet for Venus, Mars, and Mercury was not smaller than that for the Earth. The mass of water in planetesimals that collided the Moon and migrated from beyond the Jupiter’s orbit could be not more than 20 times smaller than that for the Earth.
Astronomy was one of the most important sciences in the ancient world. It was rooted in naked eye observations and primitive stone instruments for astrometric measurements to determine the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and some stars that had both practical and sacred meaning. That is why the majority of archaeoastronomical monuments are simultaneously observatories and sanctuaries, with burials and altars.
The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.
The Working Group on Planetary System Nomenclature (WG-PSN) develops, maintains and publishes guidelines for naming natural satellites of planets and surface features on all solar system bodies except Earth. When required the WG approves lists of new nomenclature, with accompanying explanatory notes, based on the established guidelines. Approved names are immediately added into the Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. Objections based on significant, substantive problems may be submitted within a 3-months period, and will be ruled on by Division III.
The meeting was attended by six from the WG (K. Aksnes, J. Blunck, G. Consolmagno, B. Marsden, R. Schulz, V. Shevchenko) and two from the Task Groups (D. Morrison, J. Watanabe). Also the incoming WG members E. Bowell and R. Courtin, as well as some guests, attended.
The Working Group was formed at the request of the Board of DivisionIII and approved by the IAU Executive committee in March 2004. This was in recognition of the fact that discoveries in the Trans Neptunian region were repeatedly raising the question of “what is a planet”. The task of the WG was to investigate the options available and give indications of the level of support and opposition for each if more than one option was emerging.
The atmosphere of Venus was discovered for the first time by the Russian scientist Mikhail V. Lomonosov at the St Petersburg Observatory in 1761. Lomonosov detected the refraction of solar rays while observing the transit of the planet across the disk of the Sun. From these observations he correctly inferred that only the presence of refraction in a sufficiently thick atmosphere could explain the appearance of a light (‘fire’) ring around the night disk of Venus during the initial phase of transit, on the side opposite from the direction of motion. Lomonosov described this phenomenon, which carries his name, as the appearance ‘of a hair-thin luminescence’, which encircled a portion of the planet's disk that had not yet contacted the solar disk. He also observed a bulge set up at the edge of the Sun during the egress phase of the Venus transit. ‘This bears witness to nothing less than the refraction of solar rays in the Venusian atmosphere’, he wrote. This paper is based on the original Lomonosov publications and describes historical approaches to the study involving procedure, drawings, and implications.To search for other articles by the author(s) go to: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html
Migration processes of comets and asteroids from the outer regions of the solar system, including the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, are regarded as important mechanisms for the formation and evolution of the inner planets. These minor bodies may be responsible for the delivery of volatile matter to the inner planets and thus be responsible for the origin of life. We estimate that the cumulative mass of icy comets impacting on the Earth during the formation of the giant planets is similar to the mass of water in the Earth oceans, and that Mars acquired more water per unit planet mass than Earth. We find that these cometary objects mostly evolved from typical near-Earth orbits and Encke-type orbits with aphelia located inside the orbit of Jupiter, and played a greater role than those with Jupiter-crossing orbits. The relative importance of comets and chondrites in the delivery of volatiles is constrained by the observed fractionation patterns of atmospheric noble gas abundance.
A space mission to Mars’ moon Phobos with a space vehicle of new generation currently developed by the Russian Aerospace Agency is discussed. The vehicle design incorporates innovative SEP technology focused on small propulsion electric engines which significantly improve the mission energetic capability. The project is optimized around a sample return (PSR) from Phobos and also offers an opportunity for rendezvous/sample return missions from several asteroids, comets, and NEO. Scenario, rationale, and basic profile of PSR mission are presented.
Because the division consists of many very active commissions, most activities are included in the reports of the individual commissions. This report highlights a small subset of the major achievements that are covered in detail in the reports by the commissions. Some administrative activities of the division and reports of the divisional working groups and committees are also included as subsequent sections of this divisional report.
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