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Recent studies of subaerial volcano carbon flux have challenged previous assumptions about carbon recycling in the mantle and the ratio of ingassing to outgassing. This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge of the flux of carbon from subaerial volcanoes at subduction zones and intraplate locations, as well as through diffuse degassing away from volcanic vents. It also reviews the importance of crustal carbonate assimilation and carbonate platforms on these fluxes. The chapter presents an overview of how these fluxes are estimated – including descriptions of new technologies and recent field campaigns – and the timescales of flux measurements. It also summarizes what is currently known about the flux of carbon versus other volatile elements in these various settings.
Before 2012, Commission 34 was identical to Division VI. The organization and executive officers of the Division and the Commission were the same. At the 2012 General Assembly (GA) in Beijing, the IAU reformed the divisional structure and the previous Division VI which Commission 34 was under was combined with Div VII to form Division H: Interstellar Matter and Local Universe. Ewine van Dishoeck was named by the IAU executive committee as the President of the new Division. Since the Commission structure is to be reformed at the GA of 2015, Commission 34 retains its original name “Interstellar Matter” and joined Commissions 33 and 37 (formally under Division VII) as commissions under the new Division H.
The business meeting of Division VI was held on Monday 10 October 2009. Apologies had been received in advance from D Breitschwerdt, P Caselli, G Ferland, M Juvela, S Lizano, M Rozyczka, V Tóth, M Tsuboi, J Yang and B-C Koo.
Distributed representations can be distributed in very many ways. The specific choice of representation for a specific model is based on considerations unique to the area of study. General statements about the effectiveness of distributed models are therefore of little value. The popularity of these models is discussed, particularly with respect to reporting conventions.
Serine proteinase activity was assayed during sporophore
maturation and postharvest senescence in Agaricus bisporus.
Serine proteinase accumulated largely in stipe tissue early during
postharvest storage and in the later stages of maturation of unpicked
sporophores. Western blot staining correlated with enzyme activity
indicating de novo synthesis. The enzyme could not be
detected by Western blotting in freshly harvested sporophores at an
early maturation stage. Small increases in activity were detected in
the cap tissue during the final stages of senescence, postharvest and
in unpicked sporophores. The distribution of the serine proteinase in
senescent sporophore tissues (high in stipe, low in cap) was confirmed
by histochemical and immunologically stained tissue prints.