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Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is a leading cause of infectious diarrhoea worldwide. In recent years, Escherichia albertii has also been implicated as a cause of human enteric diseases. This study describes the occurrence of E. coli pathotypes and serotypes associated with enteric illness and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) isolated in Brazil from 2011 to 2016. Pathotypes isolated included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). PCR of stool enrichments for DEC pathotypes was employed, and E. albertii was also sought. O:H serotyping was performed on all DEC isolates. A total of 683 DEC and 10 E. albertii strains were isolated from 5047 clinical samples. The frequencies of DEC pathotypes were 52.6% (359/683) for EPEC, 32.5% for EAEC, 6.3% for ETEC, 4.4% for EIEC and 4.2% for STEC. DEC strains occurred in patients from 3 months to 96 years old, but EPEC, EAEC and STEC were most prevalent among children. Both typical and atypical isolates of EPEC and EAEC were recovered and presented great serotype heterogeneity. HUS cases were only associated with STEC serotype O157:H7. Two E. albertii isolates belonged to serogroup O113 and one had the stx2f gene. The higher prevalence of atypical EPEC in relation to EAEC in community-acquired diarrhoea in Brazil suggests a shift in the trend of DEC pathotypes circulation as previously EAEC predominated. This is the first report of E. albertii isolation from active surveillance. These results highlight the need of continuing DEC and E. albertii surveillance, as a mean to detect changes in the pattern of pathotypes and serotypes circulation and provide useful information for intervention and control strategies.
Due to its excellent optical properties, gold nanomaterials with anisotropic morphology are playing an important role in biomedical applications, specifically in the use of Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) technique for biological assays. In this work, we verified the behavior of the star shape nanoparticle peaks obtained by chemical synthesis (precursor reactant: HAuCl4, cationic surfactant: CTAB) and whose peaks were formed from the different concentrations of gold seeds (55, 65, 75 and 85 ul) which were added to the total solution (5.275 ml). The shape and size of the nanoparticles was verified with a Hitachi S-5500 microscope with a BF & DF SEM / STEM detector, and for the diameter distribution (hydrodynamic) was carried out by the dynamic light distribution technique with a Malvern DLS system Zetasizer Nano ZS. Particle sizes (peak-to-peak considering) were obtained with variations from 107 to 166 nm. The results suggest adding 75 ul of gold seeds to obtain uniform nanostars with well defined peaks. These gold nano-stars could be applied for identification of specific membrane markers for the study of different types of cancer by the SERS technique.
This study constitutes a first attempt to investigate sex differences in osmoregulatory capacity and metabolic responses in relation to hyper- and hypo-osmoregulation in the intertidal euryhaline crab Uca tangeri. Adult male and female specimens from Cadiz Bay, Spain (36°23′–37′N 6°8′–15′W), were acclimated to three different environmental salinities (12, 33 and 55 psu) during 7 days, and several parameters were assessed in haemolymph (osmolality, glucose, amino acids, triglycerides and lactate) as well as in metabolic key organs (hepatopancreas, anterior and posterior gills: glycogen, free glucose, amino acids and triglycerides). Specimens from both sex exhibited high and similar hyper- and hypo-osmoregulatory capacities. However, metabolite levels were differentially affected upon acclimation to low and high salinity in several metabolic organs and haemolymph of male and females: (i) glycogen in gills, (ii) free glucose in gills and hepatopancreas, (iii) amino acids in hepatopancreas, (iv) triglycerides in haemolymph, hepatopancreas and posterior gills, and (v) lactate in haemolymph. The results suggest the occurrence of differential metabolic adjustments upon hyper- and hypo-osmoregulation related to sex in the intertidal euryhaline crab U. tangeri.
Recent developments in U.S-Cuba relations have resulted in a proliferating global interest in Cuba, including its legal regime. This comprehensive Guide aims to fill a noticeable void in the availability of information in English on this enigmatic jurisdiction's legal order, and on how to conduct research related to it. Covered topics include “The Constitution,” “Legislation and Codes,” “The Judiciary,” “Cuba in the International Arena,” and “The Legal Profession.” A detailed section on “Cuban Legal Materials in U.S. and Canadian Libraries” is also featured. Although the Guide emphasizes sources in English and English-language translation, materials in Spanish are likewise included as English-language equivalents are often unavailable. The Guide's 12 authors are members of the Latin American Law Interest Group of the American Association of Law Libraries’ Foreign, Comparative, and International Law Special Interest Section (FCIL-SIS).
In luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs), the infall of gas into the central regions strongly enhances the star formation rate (SFR), especially within the nuclear regions which have also large amounts of interstellar dust. Within these regions SFRs of several tens to hundreds of solar masses per year ought to give rise to core-collapse supernova (SN) rates up to 1-2 SNe every year per galaxy. However, the current SN surveys, almost exclusively being ground-based seeing-limited and working at optical wavelengths, have been blinded by the interstellar dust and contrast issues therein. Thus the properties and rates of SNe in the nuclear environments of the most prolific SN factories in the Universe have remained largely unexplored. Here, we present results from high angular resolution observations of nearby LIRGs at infrared and radio wavelengths much less affected by the effects of extinction and lack of resolution hampering the optical searches.
Previous paleoceanographic studies along the NW African margin focused on the dynamics of surface and intermediate waters, whereas little attention has been devoted to deep-water masses. Currently, these deep waters consist mainly of North Atlantic Deep Waters as part of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). However, this configuration was altered during periods of AMOC collapse. We present a high-resolution reconstruction of bottom-water ventilation and current evolution off Mauritania from the last glacial maximum into the early Holocene. Applying redox proxies (Mo, U and Mn) measured on sediments from off Mauritania, we describe changes in deep-water oxygenation and we infer the evolution of deep-water conditions during millennial-scale climate/oceanographic events in the area. The second half of Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas were recognized as periods of reduced ventilation, coinciding with events of AMOC reduction. We propose that these weakening circulation events induced deficient deep-water oxygenation in the Mauritanian upwelling region, which together with increased productivity promoted reducing conditions and enhanced organic-matter preservation. This is the first time the effect of AMOC collapse in the area is described at high resolution, broadening the knowledge on basin-wide oceanographic changes associated with rapid climate variability during the last deglaciation.
To evaluate the nutritional quality of products advertised on television (TV) during children's viewing time in Spain, applying the UK nutrient profile model (UKNPM).
We recorded 80 h of four general TV station broadcasts during children's viewing time in May and June 2008, and identified all advertisements for foods and beverages. Nutritional information was obtained from the product labels or websites and from food composition tables. Each product was classified as healthy (e.g. gazpacho, a vegetable juice) or less healthy (e.g. potato crisp snacks) according to the UKNPM criteria.
Four free-of-charge TV channels in Spain: two national channels and two regional ones.
TV commercials of food and beverages.
A total of 486 commercials were broadcast for ninety-six different products, with a mean frequency of 5·1 advertisements per product. Some 61·5 % of the ninety-six products were less healthy, and the percentage was higher for foods (74·1 %). All (100 %) of the breakfast cereals and 80 % of the non-alcoholic drinks and soft drinks were less healthy. Of the total sample of commercials, 59·7 % were for less healthy products, a percentage that rose to 71·2 % during children's reinforced protection viewing time.
Over half the commercials were for less healthy products, a proportion that rose to over two-thirds during the hours of special protection for children. This suggests that applying the UKNPM to regulate food advertising during this slot would entail the withdrawal of most food commercials in Spain. TV advertising of products with low nutritional quality should be restricted.
Two studies were conducted with college students to validate the Spanish-language version of the “Acceptance of Modern Myths about Sexual Aggression” scale (AMMSA) (Gerger, Kley, Bohner & Siebler, 2007). This scale assesses modern myths about sexual aggression in a subtle way. In Study 1, 305 students completed the Spanish AMMSA and other scales with related content. In Study 2, 263 participants completed the Spanish AMMSA and answered questions about a hypothetical sexual assault perpetrated by a young man against a female acquaintance. The Spanish AMMSA showed high internal consistency and adequate evidence of validity in both studies. Compared to traditional scales of rape myth acceptance, mean scores on the AMMSA were higher and their distributions more closely approximated normality. These findings suggest that the Spanish version of the AMMSA scale is a useful instrument to study the social perception of sexual aggression.
The present study analysed the effects of the flavanol ( − )-epicatechin in rats after chronic inhibition of NO synthesis with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), at doses equivalent to those achieved in the studies involving human subjects. Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control-vehicle, (2) l-NAME, (3) l-NAME-epicatechin 2 (l-NAME-Epi 2) and (4) l-NAME-epicatechin 10 (l-NAME-Epi 10). Rats were daily given by oral administration for 4 weeks: vehicle, ( − )-epicatechin 2 or 10 mg/kg. Animals in the l-NAME groups daily received l-NAME 75 mg/100 ml in drinking-water. The evolution in systolic blood pressure and heart rate, and morphological and plasma variables, proteinuria, vascular superoxide, reactivity and protein expression at the end of the experiment were analysed. Chronic ( − )-epicatechin treatment did not modify the development of hypertension and only weakly affected the endothelial dysfunction induced by l-NAME but prevented the cardiac hypertrophy, the renal parenchyma and vascular lesions and proteinuria, and blunted the prostanoid-mediated enhanced endothelium-dependent vasoconstrictor responses and the cyclo-oxygenase-2 and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) up-regulation. Furthermore, ( − )-epicatechin also increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and prevented the l-NAME-induced increase in systemic (plasma malonyldialdehyde and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α) and vascular (dihydroethidium staining, NADPH oxidase activity and p22phox up-regulation) oxidative stress, proinflammatory status (intercellular adhesion molecule-1, IL-1β and TNFα up-regulation) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. The present study shows for the first time that chronic oral administration of ( − )-epicatechin does not improve hypertension but reduced pro-atherogenic pathways such as oxidative stress and proinflammatory status of the vascular wall induced by blockade of NO production.
The stabilisation and longevity of Franco's regime can be explained by the interpenetration of society and the institutions of the ‘New State’ in three overlapping areas: firstly, in the sphere of the shared culture of the community of civil war victors; secondly, through repression, based on the decisive collaboration of those supporting Francoism, which cut short any possible opposition; thirdly, in the socio-economic sphere, where those making up the groups supporting the ‘New State’ would see their personal interests fulfilled. At the same time, the defeated would be ensnared in a maze of misery and silence, abandoning any political concerns and concentrating instead on survival. Accordingly, the regime proved able to win support from a broad range of social groups while also eliminating any signs of opposition.
To evaluate the level of compliance with the PAOS Code (Publicidad, Actividad, Obesidad y Salud), which establishes standards for the self-regulation of food marketing aimed at minors, in television advertising by food and beverage companies that have agreed to abide by the Code.
The study sample consisted of food and beverage advertisements targeting children during 80 h of programming by four Spanish television networks. The level of compliance with each standard of the PAOS Code was classified into three categories: ‘compliance’, ‘non-compliance’ and ‘uncertain compliance’. Overall, an advertisement was considered compliant with the PAOS Code if it met all the standards; non-compliant if it contravened one or more standards; and uncertain in all other cases.
Of a total of 203 television advertisements from companies that agreed to the PAOS Code, the overall prevalence of non-compliance was 49·3 % (v. 50·8 % among those that did not agree to the code), with 20·7 % of advertisements considered of uncertain compliance. Non-compliance was more frequent on Saturdays, in longer advertisements, in advertisements containing promotions or dairy products, and for advertisements from companies of French or US origin.
Non-compliance with the PAOS Code was very high and was similar for companies that did and did not agree to the Code, casting doubt on the Code’s effectiveness and oversight system. It seems the time has come to commit to statutory regulations that reduce the negative impact of advertising on children’s diets, as demanded by public health experts and consumer associations.
We report on recent advances in the development of a luminescence spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and its application to fundamental aspects of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin films. Relevant to our discussion is the specifics of the surface electronics. The CIGS shows pronounced stoichiometric deviations at the surface and, consequently, distinct surface electronics that has been shown to be critical in achieving high efficiency. Cathodoluminescence (CL), a luminescence spectrum imaging mode in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), provides a direct correlation between the microstructure of the CIGS and its electronic properties. As such, cathodoluminescence can resolve the emission spectrum between grain boundaries and grain interiors or be used to investigate the influence of local orientation and stoichiometry on the electronic properties of the CIGS at the microscale. Cathodoluminescence is not a surface microscopy, however, and resolving the electronic structure of the CIGS surface remains elusive to all luminescence microscopies. With this motivation, we have developed a luminescence microscopy based on STM, in which tunneling electrons are responsible for the excitation of luminescence (scanning tunneling luminescence or STL). The hot-tunneling-electron excitation is confined to the surface and, consequently, the tunneling luminescence spectrum reveals the electronic states near the surface. The STM is integrated inside the SEM and, therefore, both CL and STL can be measured over the same location and compared. Using this setup, the transition from the grain interior to the surface can be investigated. We have improved the collection of our optics to a level in which tunneling luminescence spectrum imaging can be performed. Here we present a detailed account on our investigation of the surface electronics in CIGS deposited in the regime of selenium deficiency as defined by <Se>/(<Cu> + <In> + < Ga >) = 1.
A new technique, based on Optical Methods, has been tested for the evaluation of the lithium bromide (LiBr) concentration, a corrosive substance frequently used in heat pumps. Those solutions have large oxidizing capabilities. This technique avoids the direct contact between the electrodes and the LiBr aqueous solution within a thermodynamic absorption cycle. The viability of this technique in a potential commercial device, resides on its capability to detect working fluid concentrations within a temperature range from 25 °C up to 70 °C, those limiting temperature values correspond to the operating wavelengths of 1.33 μm and 1.55 μm, respectively. Our system determines the correlation among the signal and temperature data, for various concentrations, between 49 and 58 mass percentages. This function of two variables is represented as a surface with the transmittance, concentration and temperature as parameters and wavelength as reference. We discuss the adequate parameters characterization used in this technique.
Swine vesicular disease is a highly contagious disease of pigs that is caused by an enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae. The virus is a relatively recent derivative of the human coxsackievirus B5, with which it has high molecular and antigenic homology. The disease is not severe, and affected animals usually show moderate general weakening and slight weight loss that is recovered in few days, as well as vesicular lesions in the mucosa of the mouth and nose and in the interdigital spaces of the feet. However, the similarity of these lesions to those caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus has led to the inclusion of this virus in list A of the Office International des Epizooties. The disease has been eradicated in the European Union except in Italy, where it is considered endemic in the south. Nevertheless, as occasional outbreaks still appear and must be eliminated rapidly, European countries are on the alert and farms are monitored routinely for the presence of the virus. This circumstance has led to a considerable effort to study the pathology of the disease and the molecular biology and antigenicity of the virus, and to the development of optimized methods for the diagnosis of the infection.