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To test the reliability and validity of the DIGS in Spanish population.
Inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the Spanish version of DIGS was tested in 95 inpatients and outpatients. The resultant diagnoses were compared with diagnoses obtained by the LEAD (Longitudinal Expert All Data) procedure as “gold standard”. The kappa statistic was used to measure concordance between blind inter-raters and between the diagnoses obtained by LEAD procedure and through the DIGS.
Overall kappa coefficient for inter-rater reliability was 0.956. The kappa value for individual diagnosis varied from major depression = 0.877 to schizophrenia = 1. Test-retest reliability was 0.926. Kappa for all individual target diagnoses ranged from 0.776 (major depression) to 1. Kappa between LEAD procedure and DIGS ranged from 0.704 (major depression) to 0.825 (bipolar I disorder).
Most of the DSM-IV major psychiatric disorders can be assessed with acceptable to excellent reliability with the Spanish version of the DIGS interview. The Spanish version of DIGS showed an acceptable to excellent concurrent validity. Giving the good reliability and validity of Spanish version of DIGS it should be considered to identify psychiatric phenotypes for genetics studies.
Benzodiazepines are extensively used in primary care, but their long-term use is associated with adverse health outcomes and dependence.
To analyse the efficacy of two structured interventions in primary care to enable patients to discontinue long-term benzodiazepine use.
A multicentre three-arm cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted, with randomisation at general practitioner level (trial registration ISRCTN13024375). A total of 532 patients taking benzodiazepines for at least 6 months participated. After all patients were included, general practitioners were randomly allocated (1:1:1) to usual care, a structured intervention with follow-up visits (SIF) or a structured intervention with written instructions (SIW). The primary end-point was the last month self-declared benzodiazepine discontinuation confirmed by prescription claims at 12 months.
At 12 months, 76 of 168 (45%) patients in the SIW group and 86 of 191 (45%) in the SIF group had discontinued benzodiazepine use compared with 26 of 173 (15%) in the control group. After adjusting by cluster, the relative risks for benzodiazepine discontinuation were 3.01 (95% CI 2.03–4.46, P<0.0001) in the SIW and 3.00 (95% CI 2.04–4.40, P<0.0001) in the SIF group. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were insomnia, anxiety and irritability.
Both interventions led to significant reductions in long-term benzodiazepine use in patients without severe comorbidity. A structured intervention with a written individualised stepped-dose reduction is less time-consuming and as effective in primary care as a more complex intervention involving follow-up visits.
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