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FFQ are one of the most widely used tools of research into nutritional epidemiology, and many studies have been conducted in several countries using this dietary assessment method. The present study aimed to evaluate the relative validity of FFQ, in comparison with other methods, in assessing dietary intake of children and adolescents, through a systematic review. Four electronic databases (Embase, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science) found sixty-seven articles, which met the inclusion criteria (healthy children and adolescents from 3 to 18 years of age; journal articles written in English, Spanish and Portuguese between 1988 and March 2019; results showing the comparison between the FFQ with other methods of assessment of dietary intake). The articles were analysed by two independent reviewers. A meta-analysis was conducted using correlation coefficients as estimate effects between the FFQ and the reference standard method. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to identify the probable source of heterogeneity. In fifty-five of the sixty-seven studies, a single dietary assessment method was used to evaluate the FFQ; nine combined the two methods and three used three reference methods. The most widely used reference method was the 24-h recall, followed by the food record. The overall relative validity of the FFQ to estimate energy, macronutrient, certain micronutrient and certain food item intakes in children and adolescents may be considered weak. The study protocol was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42016038706.
Previous literature supports antipsychotics’ (AP) efficacy in acute first-episode psychosis (FEP) in terms of symptomatology and functioning but also a cognitive detrimental effect. However, regarding functional recovery in stabilised patients, these effects are not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate dopaminergic/anticholinergic burden of (AP) on psychosocial functioning in FEP. We also examined whether cognitive impairment may mediate these effects on functioning.
A total of 157 FEP participants were assessed at study entry, and at 2 months and 2 years after remission of the acute episode. The primary outcomes were social functioning as measured by the functioning assessment short test (FAST). Cognitive domains were assessed as potential mediators. Dopaminergic and anticholinergic AP burden on 2-year psychosocial functioning [measured with chlorpromazine (CPZ) and drug burden index] were independent variables. Secondary outcomes were clinical and socio-demographic variables.
Mediation analysis found a statistical but not meaningful contribution of dopaminergic receptor blockade burden to worse functioning mediated by cognition (for every 600 CPZ equivalent points, 2-year FAST score increased 1.38 points). Regarding verbal memory and attention, there was an indirect effect of CPZ burden on FAST (b = 0.0045, 95% CI 0.0011–0.0091) and (b = 0.0026, 95% CI 0.0001–0.0006) respectively. However, only verbal memory post hoc analyses showed a significant indirect effect (b = 0.009, 95% CI 0.033–0.0151) adding premorbid IQ as covariate. We did not find significant results for anticholinergic burden.
CPZ dose effect over functioning is mediated by verbal memory but this association appears barely relevant.
This article compares in a systematic way the team's intervention choices of professionals across seven European countries: France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain towards problems and needs of patients with schizophrenia and relates this to the diversity of psychiatric systems.
The clinical and social status of 433 patients was assessed by means of the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and the Needs for Care Assessment instrument (NFCAS) which was used to determine teams' intervention choices toward the NFCAS problems.
There is no, or little, consensus across Europe on teams' intervention choices towards either the clinical or the social problems and needs of patients suffering from schizophrenic disorders. These comparisons outlined the cultural differences concerning the interventions that were proposed and should be taken into account when interpreting the number of needs and the need status since the need status relies heavily on the interventions proposed. The differences were not connected with the availability of resources; most of the comparisons show differences between centers as well as differences between groups of relatively similar resource countries.
Extrapyramidal symptoms are well known as side effects in therapy with antipsychotics. Explore this side effects is mandatory because they normally are a cause of treatment discontinuation or assess a change in medication. Some studies notice how long acting injectable antipsychotic cause less extrapyramidal symptoms than oral treatment, others does not find differences.
The aim of this study is to analyze the extrapyramidal symptoms presented on a group of patients treated with aripiprazole long acting injectable (ALAI) follow-up in a mental health care center.
Descriptive study of a group of patients treated with ALAI. To assess the possible extrapyramidal symptoms due to treatment we have used the Simpson-Angus Scale (SAS). The follow up was 3 months after initiation of treatment.
Six patients were included in the study, 2 women (33.3%) and 4 men (66.7%). The mean age of the sample was 37 years old. The different diagnoses of the group were 4 patients with psychotic disorder (66.7%; 2 schizophrenia, 1 schizoaffective disorder and 1 delusional chronic disorder) and the other 2 had an affective disorder (33.3%; both bipolar disorder). The average score for the SAS was 1.2 meaning normal results and therefore no significant extrapyramidal symptoms.
In our sample the average of the results obtained by applying the SAS is considered within normal limits. In our case as to extrapyramidal effects ALAI treatment has been well tolerated. A larger sample would be needed to obtain more reliable results.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Breakfast (BF) is widely recognized as an important component of a healthy lifestyle and represents an important source of key nutrients in the diet for both adults and children. Furthermore, BF consumption seems to be associated with a better intake of vitamins and minerals in both, children and adolescents.
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between frequency and characteristics of BF consumption and its relation with micronutrients intake.
Material and Methods
An exhaustive search was carried out in three datasets in March 2019. The search strategy used to identify the articles was as follow: breakfast, food beverages appetite regulation, child nutritional physiological phenomena, diet, digestion, eating, feeding behavior, gastrointestinal absorption, hunger, nutritional requirements, nutritional status, nutritive value, breakfast skipping, meal skipping, fasting, food preferences, diet therapy, child, preschool, adolescent, breakfast skipping and meal skipping. Two independent reviewers performed the data extraction and assessed their quality and risk of bias following the PRISMA methodology and using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Meta-analysis was performed comparing results based on type of BF: skip BF, Ready To Eat Cereal (RTEC) BF and other types of BF. DerSimonian and Laird estimators using random effects models were applied for continuous data. Effect sizes were calculated for each outcome.
Out of 3105 articles, we selected 30 full-text articles for inclusion and 7 were considered for meta-analysis.. Children who usually skip BF had significantly lower daily intake of vitamin A (SMD, -10.407; 95%CI: -14.147, -6.667) and vitamin C (SMD, -4.127; 95%CI: -5.091, -3.162) than BF consumers. The intake of vitamin B1 (SMD, -16.378; 95%CI: -29.110, -3.647) and vitamin B2 [SMD, -14.757; 95%CI: -20.247, -9.268] was lower in skippers than RTEC BF consumers.
Regarding to minerals, children who usually consume BF had significantly higher daily consumption of Calcium (SMD, -7.034; 95%CI: -9.029, -5.040), Iron (SMD, -6.552; 95%CI: -9.242, -3.861) and Sodium (SMD, -3.395; 95%CI: -5.554, -1.236) than BF skippers. The intake of Magnesium (SMD, -10.903; 95%CI: -18.078, -3.729) and Potassium (SMD, -6.972; 95%CI: -10.689, -3.254) was higher in RTEC BF consumers than BF skippers.
Evidence suggested that BF consumption and RTEC breakfast consumption seems to be associated with better micronutrient intake
The relationship between social vulnerabilities and the effectiveness of behavioral interventions to prevent obesity in children is poorly understood. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the association between parental employment and the effectiveness of IDEFICS, a multilevel behavioral intervention aiming to prevent obesity among children (2 to 9.9 years old) in eight European countries. Data from 9,901 children and their parents was included in the analysis. We determined the Body Mass Index (BMI) z-score mean difference as the measurement of the intervention effectiveness and we calculated it as the follow-up (T1) BMI z-score mean minus baseline (T0) BMI z-score mean. Parents self-reported their employment status at T0 and T1. Children were classified, at both study times (T0 and T1), as children with employed parents (both parents employed) or as children with unemployed parents (one or both parents unemployed or receiving social assistance). We calculated unadjusted and adjusted multilevel mixed model analyses to evaluate if the employment status at T0 and the evolution of the employment status within a two-year period (from T0 to T1) predicted the BMI z-score mean difference among boys and girls. In boys, parental unemployment at T0 and throughout a two-year period (T0 to T1) predicted an increase of BMI z-score mean difference when compared to boys with employed parents (unemployment at T0: adjusted β = 0.12; p = 0.028; and unemployment from T0 to T1: adjusted β = 0.20; p = 0.031). We found no difference in the effectiveness of the IDEFICS intervention among girls with unemployed parents at T0 and from T0 to T1 when compared to girls with employed parents (unemployment at T0: adjusted β = 0.04; p = 0.337; and unemployment from T0 to T1: adjusted β = 0.10; p = 0.216, respectively). Our results suggest that the influence of parental unemployment in the IDEFICS outcome is different for boys and girls. Employment of both parents, which is related to a higher income, could contribute the families to engage healthier eating and physical activity behaviors among boys. Future multilevel interventions should include a combination of community-based and school-based components, as well as family-centered components, specifically on those families with parents out of the labor force, to address specific barriers or vulnerabilities that prevent them from improving behavior and weight status.
Childhood obesity is one of the most serious global public health challenges of the 21stcentury. Health and scientific organizations demand early interventions, although their complexity generates difficulties in their implementation. In systematic reviews, quality assessments are intended to limit mislead reporting and it is important they are conducted in a manner that minimizes bias. Process evaluation (PE) is used to monitor and document program implementation and can aid in understanding the relationship between specific program elements and program outcomes. Failure to deliver an intervention as intended can lead to unclear conclusions about the effectiveness of the intervention. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the studies based on the process evaluation and the quality on its interventions. We performed a systematic review of randomized control trials aiming to prevent childhood obesity. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions tool was used to assess and report methodological risk of bias. Each item was judged as being at high (HR), low (LR) or unclear (UN) risk of bias as per criteria. Key domains random sequence generation and allocation concealment were also assessed. Effectiveness was estimated when the study showed changes in body composition as the main outcome (BMI z-score or waist circumference). Process evaluation was evaluated if at least one process evaluation indicator was identified as being adequately implemented. From the 41 studies, 26 showed any degree of effectiveness and 15 were not effective. Almost half of studies scored high risk of bias: 20/41 (Effective 13/26; non effective 7/15). Moreover, 16/41 studies reported to have unclear risk of bias (effective 10/26; and non-effective 6/15). Only 5/41 articles reported to have low risk (effective 3/26; non effective 2/15). Regarding random sequence generation, there was no difference according to the quality of the studies (effective: LR 25/26, UN 1/26 AND HR 0/26; non effective: LR 15/15, UN 0/15 AND HR 0/15). Concerning the allocation concealment domain, there were no differences found either (effective: LR 11/26, UN 10/26 AND HR 5/26; non effective: LR 7/15, UN 5/15 AND HR 3/15). PE was used in 7 papers (effective 3/7 and non-effective 4/7). Quality seems to have slightly more influence in the non-effective studies (LR 13.3%) than in the effective studies (LR 11.5%). The non-effective studies showed the highest proportion of performing PE. There seems to be a relationship between the quality and PE performance.
Evidence suggests that the time spent in different types of sedentary behaviours (e.g. TV watching, use of video games) may be more important in predicting childhood obesity as compared with overall sedentary time (ST). Sedentary time has been associated with unhealthy food and beverage consumption at young ages. The aims of this study were: to examine the association between different beverages consumption and sedentary behaviours and to evaluate the association between the total dietary quality index (DQI) and the adherence to the ST recommendations, in a sample of Spanish children.
The study included a cohort of 381 children (40.7 % boys) aged 7 years, from the Growth and Feeding during Infancy and Early Childhood in Aragon (CALINA) longitudinal study, living in Zaragoza. Data on dietary habits and screen time (watching TV/DVD/videos and playing PC/video games) were parental-reported. ST was categorized based on the recommendations (≤ 2hour/day and > 2hour/day). The DQI was computed from a validated semi quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Generalized linear mixed models, adjusted for maternal education and body mass index, were analysed.
In boys, exceeding the total ST's recommendations (> 2 h/day) was positively associated with high consumption of soft drinks (β = 0.13; CI: 0.02;0.26) while in girls, exceeding the recommendations was positively associated with light drinks (soft drinks with artificial sweeteners) consumption (β = 0.06; CI: 0.02;0.13). Only individual PC/videogames time was associated with beverage consumption. In both gender, excessive PC/video games time (> 2h/day) was associated with high soft drinks consumption (β = 0.51; CI: 0.25; 0.77, β = 1.07; CI: 0.79; 1.35, respectively). Only in girls, there was a positive association between PC/ video games time and light drinks (soft drinks with artificial sweeteners) consumption (β = 0.21; CI: 0.02; 0.41). Regarding the DQI, only boys showed a negative associations between total ST and the DQI (β = -5.91; CI -2.56; -2.56), this means, that those boys that exceeded the total ST's recommendations (> 2 h/day) had a poor total quality diet.
In children, ST was associated with beverages (soft drinks and light drinks) consumption and a poor total diet quality. Soft drinks with artificial sweeteners (light drinks) were chosen mostly by girl´s, whereas, boys preferred regular sugar sweetened soft drinks consumption.
Introduction: Childhood obesity is rising in all countries. Dietary habits are modifiable factors which develop early in life. During growth, several factors, such as peer- influence and food availability, determine the development of food preferences and eating behaviour. Parents play also a key role model by influencing their own food intake.
Objetives: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of parental role modelling, as predictor of fruits and vegetables intake in European pre-schoolers.
Methods: The present study included a sample of 6633 preschool children (51.9% boys) from six European centres (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain), 3.5 to 5.5 years of age, participating in the ToyBox-study. Data on parental role modelling related with their own fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) and children's fruits and vegetables intake (portions/day) were collected via standardized proxy-administered questionnaires. Linear regression model was used to assess this association. The adjusted model included socioeconomic status and weight status.
Results: In the unadjusted model, boys whose parents consumed fruits, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.08–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the boys whose parents did not consume fruits. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.10 (95% CI: 0.08–0.12; p ≤ 0.001) portions of fruits more than the girls whose parents did not consume fruits.
Moreover, boys whose parents consumed vegetables, showed a mean intake of 0.09 (95% CI: 0.07–0.11; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the boys whose parents did not consume vegetables. Also, girls whose parents consumed fruits, had intake of 0.11 (95% CI: 0.09–0.13; p ≤ 0.001) portions of vegetables more than the girls whose parents did not consume vegetables.
Finally, parental role related with fruits consumption explained 19.3% of fruits intake in European pre-schoolers and the 17.8% of vegetables intake in boys and 21.9% of vegetable intake in girls taking into consideration the potential effect of socioeconomic status of the family and the weight status of the children.
Conclusions: Parental role model of fruit intake has moderate effect on the pre-schooler's dietary intake. However, home environment characteristics such as family rules or availability and accessibility of foods should be considered as potential factors related to food intake in pre-schoolers.
Introduction: Dietary habits are established from a very young age. Parental role modeling is an important factor influencing the eating behavior of their children. Drinking behavior may have an impact in the development of childhood obesity. This study aimed to explore the correlations of core drinking beverages between parents and their children.
Materials and Methods: The present study included children of 3.5–5.5 years and their parents from the (Multifactorial evidence-based approach using behavioral models in understanding and promoting fun, healthy food, play and policy for the prevention of obesity in early childhood) ToyBox study. The study was a kindergarten-based family-involved intervention, in preschool children from six European countries: Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland, and Spain. For this study, we analyzed data from the baseline cross-sectional survey.
Data on consumption frequency of water, homemade or fresh fruit juice, prepacked fruit juice, light beverages and sugared sweetened beverages consumption from parents and their children was obtained via a validated food frequency questionnaire. Parents were given examples of serving sizes and asked about how to self-report their usual consumption per day or week. Beverage consumption of children was reported by their parents and information about frequency and portion sizes was collected. Body weight and height of children was measured and classified according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF). Bivariate correlations were performed to analyze beverage consumption (servings per day) in children and their parents.
Results: The studied sample included 5266 pairs of children (49.2% girls) and parents (91.7% women) that were included in the analysis.
Girls presented higher correlations in water (r2 = 0,317) and sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,302), whereas boys, presented slightly higher correlations of light soft drinks (r2 = 0,273), pure fruit juices (r2 = 0,308) and prepacked fruit juices (r2 = 0,324), all of them at < 0.01 level of significance. Considering boys and girls together, a slightly higher significant correlation coefficients were found between children-parents’ dyads with overweight/obesity compared to normal weight children-parentś for sugar sweetened beverages (r2 = 0,303) and light soft drinks (r2 = 0,396).
Discussion: Beverage consumption of children and their parents were found to be moderately correlated. Overweight children seem to have better correlations with their parents in relation of sugar sweetened beverages and light soft drinks. Parents should encourage a healthy beverage consumption for their own health and most important, because there are key role models to their children.
Hydrogenated microcrystalline Silicon-Germanium (μc-SiGe:H) thin films were deposited using the Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) technique from a gas mixture of SiH4, GeH4, H2 and Ar at a substrate temperature of 200 ° C. The films were deposited at a pressure of 1.5 Torr, while the RF power was varied in the range of 20 W to 35 W. Structural, optical and electrical characterization was performed in the films, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was performed in order to analyze the hydrogen bonding of silicon and germanium, while Raman spectroscopy was used in order to analyze the crystallinity of the films. Through the optical and electrical characterization of the films, parameters such as the optical band gap (Eg) and the activation energy (EA) were obtained, respectively. The conductivity of the films changed up two to orders of magnitude from dark conditions to illumination AM 1.5. Finally, the correlation between deposition RF power and the film properties is presented.
This work presents a study of the chemical structure, morphology, electromagnetic absorption and electric conductivity of thin films. The electrochemical synthesis of polypyrrole/surfactant (PPy/SDS) films doped with iodine is carried out by glow discharge plasma in aqueous solution, at different reaction times. The morphology shows agglomerations of particles dispersed in the surface. Infrared spectroscopic analysis shows absorption on the wavenumbers 2915,2362 and 2082 cm-1 corresponding to chemical groups C-H, C=O and R/N=C=S, respectively. The electromagnetic absorption had higher response sensitivity between 340 to 800 nm in the visible region, and the electric conductivity of samples oscillated between 5.0x10-6 and 2.0x10-5 S/cm. The thickness films significantly increased when doping with iodine, reaching values up to 50 μm.
Energy balance-related behaviours (EBRB) are established in childhood and seem to persist through to adulthood. A lower parental educational level was associated with unhealthy behavioural patterns. The aim of the study is to identify clusters of EBRB and examine their association with preschool children’s BMI and maternal, paternal and parental education. A subsample of the ToyBox study (n 5387) conducted in six European countries was used. Six behavioural clusters (‘healthy diet and low activity’, ‘active’, ‘healthy lifestyle’, ‘high water and screen time; low fruits and vegetables (F&V) and physical activity (PA)’, ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ and ‘high F&V consumers’) emerged. The healthiest group characterised by high water and F&V consumption and high PA z scores (‘healthy lifestyle’) was more prevalent among preschool children with at least one medium- or higher-educated parent and showed markedly healthier trends for all the included EBRB. In the opposite, the ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster (characterised by high soft drinks and screen time z scores, and low water, F&V and PA z scores) was more prevalent among children with lower parental, paternal and maternal education levels. OR identified that children with lower maternal, paternal and parental education levels were less likely to be allocated in the ‘healthy lifestyle’ cluster and more likely to be allocated in the ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster. The ‘unhealthy lifestyle’ cluster was more prevalent among children with parents in lower parental educational levels and children who were obese. Therefore, parental educational level is one of the key factors that should be considered when developing childhood obesity prevention interventions.
To describe dietary patterns by applying cluster analysis and to describe the cluster memberships of European children over time and their association with body composition changes.
The analyses included k-means clustering based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-three food items and regression models were fitted to assess the association between dietary patterns and body composition changes.
Primary schools and pre-schools of selected regions in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain.
Participants (n 8341) in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) study.
Three persistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up. Children consistently allocated to the ‘processed’ cluster presented increased BMI (β=0·050; 95 % CI 0·006, 0·093), increased waist circumference (β=0·071; 95 % CI 0·001, 0·141) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·052; 95 % CI 0·014, 0·090) over time v. children allocated to the ‘healthy’ cluster. Being in the ‘processed’–‘sweet’ cluster combination was also linked to increased BMI (β=0·079; 95 % CI 0·015, 0·143), increased waist circumference (β=0·172; 95 % CI 0·069, 0·275) and increased fat mass gain (β=0·076; 95 % CI 0·019, 0·133) over time v. the ‘healthy’ cluster.
Children consistently showing a processed dietary pattern or changing from a processed pattern to a sweet pattern presented the most unfavourable changes in fat mass and abdominal fat. These findings support the need to promote overall healthy dietary habits in obesity prevention and health promotion programmes targeting children.
New speleothem records from northeastern Iberian caves provide data to explore the climatic patterns during the Holocene. We present δ13C and Mg/Ca from three speleothems from two different caves located in the Iberian Range allowing replication of the climatic signal for several millennia. Through the integration of those stalagmites covering since the Holocene onset to 2 ka, the early Holocene (11.7–8.5 ka) appears as the wettest interval. A marked change towards aridity is observed during the middle Holocene (8.5–4.8 ka) and an increase of humidity afterwards (4.8–2 ka). This three-part pattern, contrasting with other Iberian sequences, seems to be associated with the different role that seasonality has played in the response of different proxies (or records) to changes in water availability. Interpreting our speleothem records as changes in winter-spring precipitation along the Holocene allows reconciling previous data on hydrological variability from the western Mediterranean borderlands.
The accurate description of the growth or dissolution dynamics of a soluble gas bubble in a super- or undersaturated solution requires taking into account a number of physical effects that contribute to the instantaneous mass transfer rate. One of these effects is the so-called history effect. It refers to the contribution of the local concentration boundary layer around the bubble that has developed from past mass transfer events between the bubble and liquid surroundings. In Part 1 of this work (Peñas-López et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 800, 2016b, pp. 180–212), a theoretical treatment of this effect was given for a spherical, isolated bubble. Here, Part 2 provides an experimental and numerical study of the history effect regarding a spherical bubble attached to a horizontal flat plate and in the presence of gravity. The simulation technique developed in this paper is based on a streamfunction–vorticity formulation that may be applied to other flows where bubbles or drops exchange mass in the presence of a gravity field. Using this numerical tool, simulations are performed for the same conditions used in the experiments, in which the bubble is exposed to subsequent growth and dissolution stages, using stepwise variations in the ambient pressure. Besides proving the relevance of the history effect, the simulations highlight the importance that boundary-induced advection has to accurately describe bubble growth and shrinkage, i.e. the bubble radius evolution. In addition, natural convection has a significant influence that shows up in the velocity field even at short times, although given the supersaturation conditions studied here, the bubble evolution is expected to be mainly diffusive.
Since 2002, our team at the University of Jaén's Research Institute for Iberian Archaeology has been undertaking an archaeological research project focusing on the analysis of the site of a conflict that can indisputably be dated to the final phase of the Second Punic War. Based on the topography, descriptions in the ancient sources, and archaeological data, we present the hypothesis that the site we have located corresponds to that of the battle of Baecula. In that confrontation in 208 B.C., Scipio the Younger faced Hasdrubal Barca. It was a momentous battle, at least in terms of its subsequent outcome, given that it could be considered the event that triggered Hasdrubal's withdrawal to Italy.
Our research project has yielded information which we believe to be paradigmatic in two respects. First, we have been able to ascertain the size of the area over which an armed confrontation of this type would have taken place, thanks to the identification of determining elements such as the different camps set up for the battle and their sizes. It covers the area where the armies clashed, where they were positioned and deployed, their movements on the battlefield, and so forth. Second, thanks to intensive sampling, we have recovered a corpus of finds that may be used in the future as a reference for the allocation of other sites to the period of the Second Punic War.
Herein we hypothesise the positive effects of kojibiose (KJ), a prebiotic disaccharide, selected for reducing hepatic expression of inflammatory markers in vivo that could modulate the severity of saturated arachidic acid (ARa)-induced liver dysfunction in hyperglycaemic rats. Animals were fed daily (20 d) with ARa (0·3 mg) together or not with KJ (22 mg approximately 0·5 %, w/w diet). Glucose, total TAG and cholesterol contents and the phospholipid profile were determined in serum samples. Liver sections were collected for the expression (mRNA) of enzymes and innate biomarkers, and intrahepatic macrophage and T-cell populations were analysed by flow cytometry. ARa administration increased the proportion of liver to body weight that was associated with an increased (by 11 %) intrahepatic macrophage population. These effects were ameliorated when feeding with KJ, which also normalised the plasmatic levels of TAG and N-acyl-phosphatidylethenolamine in response to tissue damage. These results indicate that daily supplementation of KJ significantly improves the severity of ARa-induced hepatic alterations.
Exploring changes in children's diet over time and the relationship between these changes and socio-economic status (SES) may help to understand the impact of social inequalities on dietary patterns. The aim of the present study was to describe dietary patterns by applying a cluster analysis to 9301 children participating in the baseline (2–9 years old) and follow-up (4–11 years old) surveys of the Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-induced Health Effects in Children and Infants Study, and to describe the cluster memberships of these children over time and their association with SES. We applied the K-means clustering algorithm based on the similarities between the relative frequencies of consumption of forty-two food items. The following three consistent clusters were obtained at baseline and follow-up: processed (higher frequency of consumption of snacks and fast food); sweet (higher frequency of consumption of sweet foods and sweetened drinks); healthy (higher frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and wholemeal products). Children with higher-educated mothers and fathers and the highest household income were more likely to be allocated to the healthy cluster at baseline and follow-up and less likely to be allocated to the sweet cluster. Migrants were more likely to be allocated to the processed cluster at baseline and follow-up. Applying the cluster analysis to derive dietary patterns at the two time points allowed us to identify groups of children from a lower socio-economic background presenting persistently unhealthier dietary profiles. This finding reflects the need for healthy eating interventions specifically targeting children from lower socio-economic backgrounds.
Impulsivity has been widely studied in the context of traffic. The trait is believed to be the root of some accidents, along with other variables like aggression and anger. The present research objective is to develop a new scale – the I-Driving Scale (IDS) – to evaluate and measure the construct of impulsivity in specific driving situations. To that end, two studies were conducted, with 162 and 107 participants, respectively. In both studies, participants were recruited via their social networks, and answered anonymously. In addition to the IDS, they completed the Use the Vehicle to Express Anger subscale of the Driving Anger Expression Inventory (DAX), the Driving Anger Scale (DAS), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS11), and also provided demographic information. The final scale had 11 items falling into two factors: impatience, and aggressiveness/abruptness. The results show a high consistency (αT = .81, αI = .70, and αA = .85 in the first study; αT = .83, αI = .80, and αA = .88 in the second study). Statistical results of Exploratory Factor Analysis in the first sample indicated goodness of fit to a two-factor model (RMSR = .057, GFI = .98). The second study confirmed that factorial structure (χ2/df = 80.50/43 = 1.87, RMSEA = .088, CFI = .94, TLI = .92). Correlations with other measures indicated the Impatience subscale is associated with different expressions of anger behind the wheel, and directly correlated with the loss of driver’s license points. Furthermore, the Aggressiveness or Abruptness subscale was associated with more mechanical aspects, and correlated inversely with age.