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What is the role of Northeastern agricultural products in the US food system? This paper presents a typology that categorizes where agricultural production and distribution of a specific geographic area, in this case a multi-state region, fits within the US food system. The place of each food is defined based on its production volume, scope of distribution, market timing and agro-ecological niche. Six distinct roles that a region might play in supplying food are identified: (a) the region is a national production center, (b) the region is a seasonally important supplier, (c) regional production and distribution is the primary scale for supplying a food, (d) the product occupies an agro-ecological niche, (e) a product is a co-product of another industry in the region, and (f) the product is marketed explicitly for its geographic provenance as a local or regional product. Illustrative examples of each role are provided from the research of the Enhancing Food Security in the Northeast (EFSNE) regional food systems project. The examples draw from a variety of methodological approaches including regional self-reliance analysis, product case studies, supply chain models, and examination of spatial and temporal patterns in crop and livestock production and marketing. While presented in the context of the Northeast, the typology would likely be valuable for characterizing other regions of the country. We need such a typology to better understand and communicate the value of geographically dispersed agricultural production to creating a resilient food system, thereby improving our decisions of how to respond to future agricultural challenges
A large and growing body of literature has studied consumer willingness to pay (WTP) for local foods in the United States. However, these studies implicitly assume that consumers perceive local foods to have superior quality than nonlocal foods. Little is known about WTP for local foods when taking into account differences in consumer perception of food quality between local and nonlocal foods. In this article, we conduct an economic experiment to assess the effect of locally grown information on consumer WTP and quality perceptions of three broccoli varieties (one commercial variety grown in California and two newly developed local varieties). Our results show that consumers rate both the appearance and the taste of the two local broccoli varieties lower than the California variety when evaluating food quality blindly. However, consumers’ evaluations of the two local varieties improve substantially after being told the two varieties are locally grown. Results also indicate that consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the two local varieties after being told that they are locally grown. Our results provide evidence that locally grown information has a positive effect on both consumer WTP and quality perception of local foods.
Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55–80 years) and women (60–80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox’s regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (Pfor trend=0·020) and fruits (Pfor trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.
Relationships between fatty acids (FAs) in plant oils included in goat diets and milk fat C18 isomers were determined by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). The three first principal factors (PF1, PF2 and PF3) accounted for 64·5% of the total variation in milk FAs contents. Fatty acids with a double bond at carbons 13, 14, 15 or 16 had high (>0·6) and positive loadings for PF1, trans-4 to trans-8 C18:1 for PF2, whereas trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 showed high and positive loadings for PF3. Pearson's correlations supported that PF1, PF2 and PF3 were related to α-linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid intakes, respectively. Our results show that the quantitatively main FAs in plant lipids supplemented to dairy ruminants are often the main cause of the observed changes in milk C18 isomer contents. However, sometimes the observed changes are caused, or at least are influenced, by other FAs present in lower quantities in the plant lipids. Thus, using mixtures of plant oils with differently unsaturated main FAs could be a way of tailoring milk fat composition to a pre-designed pattern.
Hyponatraemia is frequent in older people and induces marked motor and cognitive dysfunction, even in patients deemed ‘asymptomatic’. Nutritional status is worse than in euvolaemic-matched controls, and the risk of fracture is increased following incidental falls. Yet hyponatraemia is undertreated, in spite of the fact that its correction is accompanied by a clear improvement in symptoms. Both evaluation of neurological symptoms and classification by volaemia are essential for a correct diagnosis and treatment of the hyponatraemic elderly patient. The syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is the most common cause of hyponatraemia in older people. Nutritional status and chronicity of SIADH should be taken into account when deciding therapy. We propose an 8-step approach to the management of the elderly patient with hyponatraemia.
The number of wineries in nontraditional cool climate regions of the United States has increased dramatically in the last decade. We examine factors influencing distribution channel choices by these wineries, including winery characteristics, marketing strategies, and the extent of vertical and horizontal integration. Using a survey of winery operators in Michigan, Missouri, and New York, we developed fractional logit models to test hypotheses regarding their distribution channel choices. We find that the share of wine sold through intermediated channels increases with winery size, years of operation, increased vertical and horizontal integration, and greater promotional intensity and levels of self-reported marketing challenges.
Farm-to-hospital (FTH) programs can potentially improve the economy of local communities and preserve the environment. Research on adoption of farm-to-hospital (FTH) programs is extremely limited in the agricultural and applied economics literature. Using data from our 2012 regional FTH program survey of hospital food-service directors in the Northeastern United States and from the U.S. Department of Agriculture, this study estimates a logit model to determine factors that influence a hospital's decision to adopt an FTH program. The empirical results indicate that specific hospital characteristics and agricultural factors significantly influence a hospital's decision to adopt.
We collected surveys from 94 greenhouse and nursery growers in three northeastern states to examine factors influencing integrated pest management (IPM] adoption. We constructed three alternative dependent variables describing the extent of IPM adoption and employed discrete choice models to identify factors that affect adoption. We find that operations with more full-time workers are more likely to adopt IPM. Additionally, greenhouse/nursery growers that rank pests as a serious problem are likely to use a wider array of IPM practices. The reliability of IPM practices is critical for adoption. Our analysis highlights differences between self-reported and objective IPM adoption measures.
We pose several Knapsack Problems (KPs) to select the optimal subset of wines subject to budget and quantity constraints. The first problem seeks the subset of wines, from a single cultivar (zinfandel) that maximizes the sum of ratings subject to a budget constraint. We modify this problem by adding an equality constraint on the number of bottles that must be chosen. The third problem seeks to maximize the sum of ratings from three different cultivars (cabernet sauvignon, pinot noir, and zinfandel) subject to a budget constraint and then a budget and minimum bottle constraints for each cultivar. The rating maximization problem may have multiple solutions. We also pose two expenditure minimization problems, subject to achieving the maximum sum of ratings. We extend the model by defining an integer choice problem, that allows multiple purchases of the same wine, and by accounting for possible non-linearities between wine ratings and utilities. Applications of this model include procurement decisions for tastings, special events or building a personal wine cellar. (JEL Classification: C61 D12)
The objectives of this study were (a) to determine the degree to which hard currency earnings constrained overall imports and coarse grain imports in command economies; (b) to measure the importance of import prices on grain imports and to trace the link of grain availability to meat production; and (c) to determine how economic and political reforms in the selected countries may have affected the hard currency constraint, the importance of import prices, and grain imports and meat production. The results indicate that import demand was constrained by earnings of hard currency, but was not responsive to world prices, and meat production was affected by total grain availability, including imports.
Recently enacted food safety regulations require processors to meet product standards for microbial contamination in meat products. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of several technological interventions for microbial control in beef and pork processing shows that marginal improvements in food safety can be obtained, but at increasing costs. The additional food safety intervention costs represent about 1% of total processing costs for beef and pork. Some interventions and combinations are more cost-effective than others.
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