Forest fragmentation, habitat loss and isolation may have a strong effect on biodiversity in tropical forests. This can include modification of the genetic diversity and structure of plant populations. In this study, we assessed the genetic diversity and structure of the tree Manilkara zapota in 15 naturally formed fragments of semi-evergreen tropical forest, as well as in an adjacent continuous forest for comparison. Forest fragments were scattered within a matrix of wetlands and were highly variable in terms of size and degree of isolation. The naturally fragmented populations of M. zapota had slightly less allelic diversity (Ar: 3.4) than those of the continuous forest (Ar: 3.6), when corrected for sample size. However, populations in the fragments and continuous forest had very similar heterozygosity levels (HE: 0.59 in both cases). Low levels of genetic differentiation were observed among populations (FST: 0.026) and genetic structure was not consistent with isolation by distance, indicating high levels of gene flow. Genetic diversity was not explained by fragment size or degree of isolation. The relatively high genetic diversity and low inter-population genetic differentiation observed in M. zapota may be the result of long-distance pollen and seed dispersal, as well as the high proximity among patches.