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Air bubbles trapped near the surface of an ice sheet are transformed into air hydrates below a certain depth Their volume and number varies partly with environment and climate. Air bubbles and hydrates at 120-2200 m depth in the Dome Fuji (Dome F) ice core were examined with a microscope. This depth range covers the Holocene/Last Glacial/Last Interglacial/Previous Glacial periods. No air bubbles were seen below about 1100 m depth, and air hydrates began to appear from about 600 m. The observed number of air bubbles and hydrates was similar to that found in the Vostok ice core. For the ice covering the Last Glacial Maximum period, however the hydrate concentration in the Dome F core is about half that of the Vostok core. Reference to snow metamorphism and packing does not explain this finding.
Glutamatergic neurotransmission via the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is integral to the pathophysiology of depression. This study was performed to examine whether amino acids related to NMDA receptor neurotransmission are altered in the serum of patients with depression.
We measured the serum levels of d-serine, l-serine, glycine, glutamate and glutamine in patients with depression (n=70), and age-matched healthy subjects (n=78).
Serum levels of d-serine and l-serine in patients with depression were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (p<0.001). In contrast, serum levels of glycine, glutamate and glutamine did not differ between the two groups. Interestingly, the ratio of l-serine to glycine in patients was significantly higher than that of healthy controls (p<0.001).
This study suggests that serine enantiomers may be peripheral biomarkers for depression, and that abnormality in the d-serine-l-serine-glycine cycle plays a role in the pathophysiology of depression.
Increasing childhood asthma rates may be due to changing dietary lifestyle. We investigated the association of dietary intake of antioxidant vitamins and fatty acids with asthma in Japanese pre-school children.
School-based survey on lifestyle/diet and health status in children in Japan.
Parents of 452 children aged 3–6 years completed a questionnaire on the children's and parents’ lifestyle and demographics. Children were classified into asthma cases and non-asthma cases in accordance with the ATS-DLD (American Thoracic Society and Division of Lung Diseases of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) questionnaire. Children's diet was assessed using a 3 d dietary record completed by parents. Children's age, sex, BMI, history of food allergy, maternal age, parental history of allergy, maternal education, family size and second-hand smoking were included as covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between children's diet and asthma.
Compared with children with the lowest intake tertile for vitamin C and vitamin E, those in the highest were significantly inversely associated with asthma; adjusted OR (95 % CI) were 0·35 (0·14, 0·88) and 0·32 (0·12, 0·85), respectively. A statistically significant trend was also observed. Fruit intake showed an inverse but insignificant association with asthma. There were no associations of any type of fatty acids with asthma.
These data suggest that children with high intakes of vitamins C and E may be associated with a reduced prevalence of asthma.
Programmed cell death or apoptosis occurs in many tissues during
normal development and in the normal homeostasis of adult tissues.
Apoptosis also plays a significant role in abnormal development
and disease. Increased interest in apoptosis and cell death
in general has resulted in the development of new techniques
and the revival of old ones. Each assay has its advantages and
disadvantages that can render it appropriate and useful for
one application, but inappropriate or difficult to use in another.
Understanding the strengths and limitations of the assays would
allow investigators to select the best methods for their needs.
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