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The exploitation of works or other subject matter of protection as provided for under Union law has, first and foremost, been set out in the all-embracing provision of article 3 of the InfoSoc Directive. In its first paragraph, article 3 applies to works of whatever kind and, in its second paragraph, to the related rights as enumerated therein.1
Passive seismology allows measurement of the structure of glaciers and ice sheets. However, most techniques used so far in this context are based on horizontally homogeneous media where parameters vary only with depth (1-D approximations), which are appropriate only for a subset of glaciers. Here, we analyze seismic noise records from three different types of glaciers (plateau, valley and avalanching glacier) to characterize the influence of the glacier geometry on the seismic wavefield. Using horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios, polarization analysis and modal analysis, we show that the plateau glacier and the valley glacier can be seen as 1-D, whereas the relatively small avalanching glacier shows 3-D effects due to its bed topography and the deep crevasses. In principle, the techniques proposed here might allow monitoring such crevasses and their depth, and thus to constrain a key parameter of avalanching and calving glacier fronts.
Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neuron disease resulting in muscle weakness, dysarthria and dysphagia, and ultimately respiratory failure leading to death. Half of the ALS patients survive less than 3 years, and 80% of the patients survive less than 5 years. Riluzole is the only approved medication in Canada with randomized controlled clinical trial evidence to slow the progression of ALS, albeit only to a modest degree. The Canadian Neuromuscular Disease Registry (CNDR) collects data on over 140 different neuromuscular diseases including ALS across ten academic institutions and 28 clinics including ten multidisciplinary ALS clinics. Methods: In this study, CNDR registry data were analyzed to examine potential differences in ALS care among provinces in time to diagnosis, riluzole and feeding tube use. Results: Significant differences were found among provinces, in time to diagnosis from symptom onset, in the use of riluzole and in feeding tube use. Conclusions: Future investigations should be undertaken to identify factors contributing to such differences, and to propose potential interventions to address the provincial differences reported.
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
Little is known about the association of cortical Aβ with depression and anxiety among cognitively normal (CN) elderly persons.
We conducted a cross-sectional study derived from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging in Olmsted County, Minnesota; involving CN persons aged ≥ 60 years that underwent PiB-PET scans and completed Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Cognitive diagnosis was made by an expert consensus panel. Participants were classified as having abnormal (≥1.4; PiB+) or normal PiB-PET (<1.4; PiB−) using a global cortical to cerebellar ratio. Multi-variable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) after adjusting for age and sex.
Of 1,038 CN participants (53.1% males), 379 were PiB+. Each one point symptom increase in the BDI (OR = 1.03; 1.00–1.06) and BAI (OR = 1.04; 1.01–1.08) was associated with increased odds of PiB-PET+. The number of participants with BDI > 13 (clinical depression) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET- group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.42; 0.83–2.43). Similarly, the number of participants with BAI > 10 (clinical anxiety) was greater in the PiB-PET+ than PiB-PET− group but the difference was not significant (OR = 1.77; 0.97–3.22).
As expected, depression and anxiety levels were low in this community-dwelling sample, which likely reduced our statistical power. However, we observed an informative albeit weak association between increased BDI and BAI scores and elevated cortical amyloid deposition. This observation needs to be tested in a longitudinal cohort study.
Paul K. Kleinman, Department of Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA,
Michele M. Walters, Staff Pediatric Radiologist at Boston Children’s Hospital and Instructor in Radiology at Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
Accurate dating of fractures is critical in cases of suspected child abuse (1–8). The ability of medical professionals to assess the veracity of the history provided depends on the clinical and radiologic assessment of the presenting injury or injuries. If, for example, a single injury to a localized portion of the extremity is alleged to have occurred but multiple sites of subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF) and/or callus are seen on radiographs, medical providers should become suspicious and initiate further investigation. However, if the severity of the alleged injury correlates with clinical and radiographic findings and all evidence suggests that the fracture is acute, the suspicion of abuse may never arise. It is clear that the ability of the radiologist and the clinician to assess the age of bony injury is critical to a determination of suspected child abuse. The forensic requirements to establishing responsibility and determining the need for intervention by child protection agencies rest strongly on the assessments of the clinician and the radiologist regarding the nature and timing of injury. Accurate fracture dating can aid in the identification and exclusion of potential abusive perpetrators. In criminal proceedings, the requirement to assign age estimates to fractures and to determine if there have been multiple episodes of abuse may have important implications. The presence of prior injuries may influence critical decisions regarding how defendants may be charged, how a prosecution may procede, the jury verdict, and the penalties to a convicted abuser (Fig. 6.1) (9).
As intra-thyroidal iodine stores should be maximised before conception to facilitate the increased thyroid hormone production during pregnancy, women who are planning to become pregnant should ideally consume 150 μg iodine/d (US RDA). As few UK data exist for this population group, a cross-sectional study was carried out at the University of Surrey to assess the iodine intake and status of women of childbearing age. Total iodine excretion was measured from 24 h urine samples in fifty-seven women; iodine intake was estimated by assuming that 90 % of ingested iodine was excreted. The average iodine intake was also estimated from 48 h food diaries that the participants completed. The median urinary iodine concentration value (63·1 μg/l) indicated the group to be mildly iodine deficient by WHO criteria. By contrast, the median 24 h urinary iodine excretion value (149·8 μg/24 h) indicated a relatively low risk of iodine deficiency. The median estimated iodine intake, extrapolated from urinary excretion, was 167 μg/d, whereas it was lower, at 123 μg/d, when estimated from the 48 h food diaries. Iodine intake estimated from the food diaries and 24 h urinary iodine excretion were strongly correlated (r 0·75, P< 0·001). The intake of milk, eggs and dairy products was positively associated with iodine status. The iodine status of this UK cohort is probably a best-case scenario as the women were mostly nutrition students and were recruited in the winter when milk-iodine content is at its highest; further study in more representative cohorts of UK women is required. The present study highlights the need for revised cut-off values for iodine deficiency that are method- and age group-specific.
Insectivorous birds and bats often protect plants through density- and trait-mediated cascades, but the degree to which insectivores reduce herbivorous arthropods and leaf damage varies among systems. Top-down interaction strength may be influenced by the biotic and abiotic context, including the presence of vegetation-disturbing animals. We tested two hypotheses: (1) insectivorous birds and bats initiate trophic cascades in tropical rain-forest understorey; and (2) the native, omnivorous collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) negates these cascades via non-trophic effects. We studied the top-down effects of birds and bats on understorey plants in north-eastern Costa Rica using 60 netted exclosures within and outside existing peccary exclosures. Excluding birds and bats increased total arthropod densities by half, both with and without peccaries. Bird/bat exclosures increased Diptera density by 28% and leaf damage by 24% without peccaries, consistent with a trophic cascade. However, bird/bat exclosures decreased Diptera density by 32% and leaf damage by 34% with peccaries, a negation of the trophic cascade. Excluding peccaries increased leaf damage by 43% on plants without birds and bats. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that the non-trophic activity of an omnivorous ungulate can reverse a trophic cascade.
Renal anatomy and physiology are significantly affected by pregnancy, with changes to kidney size as well as glomerular and tubular function. Any potential interstitial, vascular, or glomerular cause of renal insufficiency and/or proteinuria can present or worsen during pregnancy. Due to the pregnancy-associated dilatation of the urinary tract, asymptomatic bacteriuria can progress to cystitis and/or pyelonephritis, along with more severe maternal complications such as septicemia and renal insufficiency, if not promptly treated. Pre-eclampsia, the most common cause of the constellation of renal insufficiency, hypertension and proteinuria, is essentially a disease of the placenta. Acute kindney injury, if severe enough, may require renal replacement therapy irrespective of the etiology. Indications for dialysis are no different in pregnancy and include imbalances in electrolytes and volume status that cannot be managed medically. Drugs typically given to dialysis patients, including erythropoietin stimulating agents and heparin, are safe.