In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the relationship between intelligence and personality. Extraversion, in particular, has been suggested to influence intelligence, but the direction of this relationship has been controversial (Wolf & Ackerman, 2005). In a young adult sample, the NEO PI-R was completed by 103 pairs of monozygotic twins, 181 pairs of dizygotic twins and 210 of their nontwin siblings. IQ data (Multidimensional Aptitude Battery) were available for approximately three quarters of this sample, and were collected at 16 years as part of an ongoing study of cognition conducted by the Queensland Institute of Medical Research. All extraversion facets were significantly influenced by genes with both additive and nonadditive genetic effects being important (heritabilities ranged from .25 for activity to .54 for warmth). While a significant correlation between the extraversion domain score and IQ was not found, the extraversion facet of excitement-seeking (E5) was significantly negatively correlated with both verbal (r = −.15) and performance (r = −.11) IQ scores. The facet of gregariousness was significantly correlated with verbal IQ only (r = −.09). The relationship between excitement-seeking and IQ was further shown to be solely due to additive genetic influences. These common genetic effects may stem from a dependence on brain dopamine, a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in both personality and cognition.