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In 2012, an unexpected outbreak of Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) occurred in the Laurentian Mountains, Québec, Canada, known for its harsh climate. We wondered whether the eggs were sufficiently cold hardy to survive there and, if so, how long this outbreak would last. Therefore, we assessed the capacity of the eggs to supercool, to tolerate short exposures to low sub-zero temperatures, or to successfully overwinter in the field. The same assays were performed with eggs from the island of Newfoundland, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada. The mean supercooling point of eggs from the two populations increased from −40.2 °C in mid-February to −33.7 °C in mid-May. These eggs may also die at sub-zero temperatures above their supercooling point, depending on exposure durations. In the fall of 2012 when eggs were put out in the field, < 10% survived in the Laurentian Mountains, whereas > 70% survived further south. In the spring of 2013, no parasitism was detected in the population. However, the two cold waves that swept across the Laurentian Mountains the preceding winter were likely responsible for the collapse of the population. This study demonstrates that L. fiscellaria eggs may succumb to sub-zero temperatures above their supercooling point under field conditions.
From 1977 to 1999, thousands of accurate radial velocities in both hemispheres were made on a large variety of programmes with the two CORAVEL scanners. The data base of ~350000 individual observations will now be made available to complement the Gaia data.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
We present the first results of an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon intercomparison program on 3 different charcoal samples collected in one of the hearths of the Megaceros gallery of Chauvet Cave (Ardèche, France). This cave, rich in parietal decoration, is important for the study of the appearance and evolution of prehistoric art because certain drawings have been 14C dated to the Aurignacian period at the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic. The new dates indicate an age of about 32,000 BP, which is consistent with this attribution and in agreement with the results from the same sector of the cave measured previously at the Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE). Six laboratories were involved in the intercomparison. Samples were measured in 4 AMS facilities: Center for Isotope Research, Groningen University, the Netherlands; the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, UK; the Centre de datation par le carbone 14, Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon 1, France (measured by AMS facilities of Poznań University, Poland); and the LSCE, UMR CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, France (measured by the Leibniz-Labor of Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel, Germany).
Landowners and game reserve managers are often faced with the decision whether to undertake consumptive (such as hunting) and/or non-consumptive (such as tourism) use of wildlife resources on their properties. Here a theoretical model was used to examine cases where the game reserve management allocated the amount of land devoted to hunting (trophy hunting) and tourism, based on three scenarios: (1) hunting is separated from tourism but wildlife is shared; (2) hunting and tourism co-exist; and (3) hunting and tourism are separated by a fence. The consumptive and non-consumptive uses are not mutually exclusive; careful planning is needed to ensure that multiple management objectives can be met. Further, the analysis indicates that the two uses may be undertaken in the same area. Whether they are spatially, or temporally separated depends on the magnitude of the consumptive use. When consumptive use is not dominant, the two are compatible in the same shared area, provided the wildlife population is sufficiently large.
Deflection missions to near-Earth asteroids will encounter non-negligible uncertainties in the physical and orbital parameters of the target object. In order to reliably assess future impact threat mitigation operations such uncertainties have to be quantified and incorporated into the mission design. The implementation of deflection demonstration missions offers the great opportunity to test our current understanding of deflection relevant uncertainties and their consequences, e.g., regarding kinetic impacts on asteroid surfaces. In this contribution, we discuss the role of uncertainties in the NEOTωIST asteroid deflection demonstration concept, a low-cost kinetic impactor design elaborated in the framework of the NEOShield project. The aim of NEOTωIST is to change the spin state of a known and well characterized near-Earth object, in this case the asteroid (25143) Itokawa. Fast events such as the production of the impact crater and ejecta are studied via cube-sat chasers and a flyby vehicle. Long term changes, for instance, in the asteroid's spin and orbit, can be assessed using ground based observations. We find that such a mission can indeed provide valuable constraints on mitigation relevant parameters. Furthermore, the here proposed kinetic impact scenarios can be implemented within the next two decades without threatening Earth's safety.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore stakeholders’ points of views regarding the applicability and relevance of a framework for user involvement in health technology assessment (HTA) at the local level. We tested this framework in the context of the assessment of alternative measures to restraint and seclusion among hospitalized adults and those living in long-term-care facilities.
Methods: Twenty stakeholders (health managers, user representatives, and clinicians) from seven regions of Quebec participated in a semi-structured interview. A thematic analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed.
Results: The findings highlighted the relevance and applicability of the framework to this specific HTA. According to interviewees, direct participation of users in the HTA process allows them to be part of the decision-making process. User consultation makes it possible to consider the views of a wide variety of people, such as marginalized and vulnerable groups, who do not necessarily meet the requirements for participating in HTA committees. However, some user representatives emphasized that user consultation should be integrated into a more holistic and participatory perspective. The most frequent barrier associated with user involvement in HTA was the top-down health system, which takes little account of the user's perspective.
Conclusions: The proposed framework was seen as a reference tool for making practitioners and health managers aware of the different mechanisms of user involvement in HTA and providing a structured way to classify and describe strategies. However, there is a need for more concrete instruments to guide practice and support decision making on specific strategies for user involvement in HTA at the local level.
Detailed structural studies of two lithiated metal oxides, Li2CuO2 and nanoscale LiCoO2, have been carried out using ex situ high-energy X-ray diffraction (XRD) and in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with the objective of understanding structural changes that might cause capacity loss during cycling. XRD on the cuprate was studied at various states of charge and phase composition, and the bulk state was determined by Rietveld refinement and pair density function (PDF) analysis. Results showed a largely irreversible structural change of the material upon oxidation of Cu2+ as well as CuO formation. The in-situ XAS of the LiCoO2 was analyzed through a difference method to extract the changes in the local structure that occur upon cycling in both the near edge (XANES) and extended region (EXAFS). Results suggest that cycling causes site exchange of the Co and Li ions near the surface of the nanoscale LiCoO2.
This paper reports on the study of a subsidy programme that was established in Quebec for alternate housing models (AHMs), which allows private and community organisations to offer housing services within the framework of a partnership with public health-care services. The research objectives were: (a) to compare how facility characteristics and services provided by AHMs and nursing homes (NHs) differ; (b) to examine the personal characteristics of residents living in AHMs; and (c) to compare residents with similar characteristics within AHMs and NHs in terms of unmet needs, quality of care, satisfaction with care and services, and psycho-social adaptation to the residence. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with individually matched groups to assess whether AHMs meet the needs of elders in a way similar to NHs. Overall, residents in both groups had moderate to severe levels of disability and about 60 per cent had mild to severe cognitive problems. While their general features were heterogeneous, the AHMs were more comfortable and homelike than the NHs. The quality of and satisfaction with care was appropriate in both settings, although AHMs performed better. Only one-quarter of residents in both settings, however, evidenced a good level of psycho-social adaptation to their residence. This partnership approach is a good strategy to provide a useful range of housing types in communities that can respond to the needs of elders with moderate to severe disabilities.
This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04–6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2 learners in the location of cluster repair and the sometimes-exceptional treatment of s+stop clusters. We also provide evidence that accuracy rates and repairs used in early L2 cluster production show L1 influences. We conclude that early L2 learners represent a unique learner group, whose study is crucial to the understanding of phonological development.
Background: While antipsychotic (AP) medications are frequently used in long-term care, current evidence suggests that the risks may offset the benefits, necessitating periodic reassessment of their use. The aims of this present study were: (1) to assess rates of AP use five years after our first intervention to determine the long-term impact; and (2) to implement an updated AP reduction educational intervention program at the same center five years later in order to determine whether AP use could be further reduced.
Methods: Participants were residents with dementia receiving AP medication. The educational program component included separate lectures on pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Completion of the Nursing Home Behavior Problems Scale (NHBPS), physician interviews concerning AP treatment plans for subjects with dementia, and AP administration and dose assessment occurred both at baseline and again between four to five months after the educational program.
Results: Of 308 long-term residents with dementia, 53 (17.2%) were receiving regular APs, primarily for agitation, aggressivity, other behavioral problems and psychosis. Of these, six died and one was transferred, leaving 46 participants. At five months, ten (21.7%) residents were no longer receiving APs and seven (15.2%) were on a lower dose; thus, 17 (37.0%) were either discontinued or on a lower dose. There was no worsening of NHBPS scores.
Conclusion: Despite the low prevalence (17.2%) of AP users at the beginning of the current study compared to that observed five years prior (30.5%), it is still possible to further decrease the proportion of users.
Liquidus phase relationships at H2O-saturated and -undersaturated conditions and 2 kbar in the systems Qz-Or-Ab (SiO2-KAlSi3O8-NaAlSi3O8), Qz-Or-Ab-Al2O3, and subsystems are compared and discussed. In the peraluminous systems (i.e. when melts are saturated with respect to mullite) the liquidus temperatures are lowered by 40-55°C for compositions in the quartz primary field and by 15-25°C for cotectic compositions. The composition of the Qz-Ab eutectic and of the minimum are slightly shifted towards more Qz-rich compositions (minimum composition at P(H2O) = 2 kbar in the system Qz-Or-Ab-A12O3, saturated with respect to mullite: Qz40Or23Ab37). In melts saturated with sillimanite or mullite, the effect of high Al content may be lower for the Qz-Or than for the Qz-Ab eutectic.
The depression of the liquidus temperatures may be partly related to the higher H2O solubility in melts saturated with respect to mullite. The solubility of H2O in a melt with a composition of Qz28Or34Ab38 at 2 kbar and 800°C is 5·77 ± 0·15 wt% H2O and 6·36 ± 0·30 wt% H2O in a melt with the same Qz/Or/Ab proportions but saturated with respect to mullite.
The effect of high Al contents on the Mg and Fe contents of Ca-free granite melts was investigated at 775°C-3 kbar (melts coexisting with phlogopite), and at 820°C-2 kbar (melts coexisting with biotite and spinel), under NNO buffer conditions. Less than 0·15 wt% MgO is incorporated in subaluminous melts coexisting with phlogopite, whereas peraluminous melts (2·9 wt% normative corundum) contain 0·6–0·7 wt% MgO. A similar behaviour of the MgO content is observed for melts coexisting with biotite. In contrast, no significant effect of high Al contents on the FeO content of melt coexisting with biotite was observed. This suggests that the Fe/Mg ratio may be significantly lower in peraluminous than in subaluminous granitic melts.
Résumé. Notre contribution vise à analyser l'impact des instruments juridiques sur la fabrique des politiques publiques de la mémoire dans la France contemporaine. Il s'agit de montrer en quoi les instruments juridiques peuvent développer des effets propres sur les politiques de la mémoire qui n'étaient pas prévus initialement. C'est le cas lorsque la Cour de cassation décide, lors du procès Barbie en 1983, de donner une extension juridique à la notion de crime contre l'humanité, qui va au-delà de la reconnaissance des crimes perpétrés durant le judéocide. La reconnaissance originaire de la mémoire de la Shoah, adossée juridiquement à la notion d'imprescriptibilité du crime contre l'humanité, tient lieu de matrice cognitive pour la défense d'autres causes mémorielles (mémoire de l'esclavage et reconnaissance du génocide arménien, entre autres).
Abstract. Our contribution aims at analyzing the impact of legal instruments on public policy of memory in contemporary France. This is to show how legal instruments can develop specific effects on the politics of memory that were not originally foreseen. This is the case when “La Cour de Cassation” decided, at the Klaus Barbie trial in 1983, to give an extension to the legal concept of crimes against humanity that goes beyond the recognition of crimes perpetrated during the Holocaust. The recognition memory of the Holocaust, legally backed at the notion of crimes against humanity, acts as a cognitive matrix for the defense of other memories (memory of slavery, recognition of the Armenian Genocide …).
Microarrays have become one of the most convenient tools for high throughput screening and have catalyzed major advances in genomics and proteomics. Other important applications can be found in medical diagnostics, detection of biothreats, drug discovery, etc. Integration of microarrays with microfluidic devices can be highly advantageous in terms of portability, shorter analysis time and lower consumption of expensive biological analytes. Since fabrication of microfluidic devices using traditional materials such as glass is rather expensive, there is a high interest in employing polymeric materials as a low cost alternative suitable for mass production. We present proof-of-concept DNA arrays on a plastic platform for the detection of four important respiratory pathogens: Influenza A virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human enterovirus, and human metapneumovirus.
This was accomplished by amplifying the genetic material from the viruses and simultaneously labeling the amplicons with a fluorescent dye (Cy3) via a highly sensitive multiplex Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). The resultant RT-PCR product was hybridized, without further purification, with an array of specific oligonucleotide probes (20 mers) that had been covalently bound to a plastic substrate. Results indicate a high signal to background ratio that is comparable to commercially available microarray glass slides. In addition, 5 minute hybridization on this plastic substrate has been demonstrated using a centrifugal microfluidic platform, paving the way to a rapid medical diagnostic device for point-of-care use that is based on a low-cost portable Micro-Total-Analysis-System (μ-TAS).
Objectives: The aim of this study was to review international experiences of patient or public involvement in the field of health technology assessment (HTA).
Methods: A systematic review of the scientific literature was conducted. A literature search was performed across nine databases. Other literature was identified through citation tracking, government websites (HTA agencies), and Internet search engines. Characteristics of the studies, description of the activities related to patient or public involvement, impact of these activities on the HTA process, and factors facilitating or limiting involvement were abstracted independently by two reviewers.
Results: A total of 1,441 potentially relevant papers were identified by the main search strategy. Among these, seventeen papers met the inclusion criteria; other search strategies identified seven additional documents. The findings reveal that patient or public involvement in HTA activities was reported in two domains, research and HTA process. In the research domain, patients are consulted to gather evidence about their perspectives, experiences, or preferences about a health technology. These perspectives could add key dimensions to the evaluation of health technologies that might otherwise be overlooked. In the domain of the HTA process, patients or public representatives participate in different stages of this process: prioritization, evidence assessment, or dissemination of findings.
Conclusions: There are few published examples of experiences involving patients and the public in HTA. These examples show that patients' or the public's perspectives could add important dimensions to the evaluation of health technologies. However, there is a need to develop more systematic approaches to considering patients' and the public's perspectives in HTA.