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Gender is a highly salient and important social group that shapes how children interact with others and how they are treated by others. In this Element, we offer an overview and review of the research on gender development in childhood from a developmental science perspective. We first define gender and the related concepts of sex and gender identity. Second, we discuss how variations in cultural context shape gender development around the world and how variations within gender groups add to the complexity of gender identity development. Third, we discuss major theoretical perspectives in developmental science for studying child gender. Fourth, we examine differences and similarities between girls and boys using the latest meta-analytic evidence. Fifth, we discuss the development of gender, gender identity, and gender socialization throughout infancy, early childhood, and middle childhood. We conclude with a discussion of future directions for the study of gender development in childhood.
Background: Documented transmission of infectious agents involving dental care is uncommon. However, increasing attention to dental infection control, along with several recent outbreaks, have identified infection control gaps in dental settings. We describe CDC consultations involving outbreaks or infection control lapses occurring in dental settings to identify areas for prevention efforts. Methods: We reviewed internal CDC records from January 1, 2010, through October 1, 2019, to identify consultations involving investigations of potential or confirmed disease transmission and infection control lapses in dental settings. We determined yearly number of consultations, number of patients infected, how disease transmission or infection control breaches were identified, suspected mode of transmission, type of infection control breaches identified, and whether at-risk patients were notified. Results: We identified 41 consultations, among 27 states, involving investigation of possible disease transmission or infection control lapses in dental facilities. The number of consultations increased from 11 to 30 between the first half (2010–2014) and the second half (2015–2019) of the period and involved at least 113 infections confirmed or suspected to be associated with dental procedures. Most investigations (n = 29, 71%) began with identification of infection control breaches absent known patient infections; 8 (20%) investigations were initiated after identification of a single patient infection raised concerns for possible transmission associated with dental care (eg, single case of acute hepatitis B infection absent other risk factors). Moreover, 4 investigations involved >1 patient infection; 3 were outbreaks confirmed to be due to poor infection control practices. The most common infection control breaches were lapses in dental instrument reprocessing (n = 28, 78%), for example, failure to sterilize dental handpieces or failure to use biologic indicators. Of the 23 consultations where patient notification activities were discussed, 17 (74%) resulted in notification; >20,000 patients received information about their potential exposure, usually accompanied by advice on seeking screening tests. Conclusions: Dental-related consultations have increased in recent years, and they highlight the need for improved infection control training of dental healthcare personnel, especially related to dental instrument reprocessing. The CDC Division of Oral Health and the Organization for Safety, Asepsis, and Prevention offers tools, training, and other resources to help dental facilities improve infection control practices. Not all investigations resulted in notifying at-risk patients, but notification should be strongly considered, especially when serious breaches are identified, to promote transparency and help identify disease transmission that could otherwise go undetected.
Federal law often avoids setting minimum standards for women’s health and reproductive rights issues, leaving legislative and regulatory gaps for the states to fill as they see fit. This has mixed results. It can lead to state innovation that improves state-level health outcomes, informs federal health reform, and provides data on best practices for other states. On the other hand, some states may use the absence of a federal floor to impose draconian policies that pose risks to women’s and maternal health. Health reforms at the federal level must trod carefully to enable state innovation, while imposing foundational safeguards for promoting women’s health nationwide.
The Fontan Outcomes Network was created to improve outcomes for children and adults with single ventricle CHD living with Fontan circulation. The network mission is to optimise longevity and quality of life by improving physical health, neurodevelopmental outcomes, resilience, and emotional health for these individuals and their families. This manuscript describes the systematic design of this new learning health network, including the initial steps in development of a national, lifespan registry, and pilot testing of data collection forms at 10 congenital heart centres.
Chapter 1 introduced the basic ‘tools’ of performance and reward management, including key aspects of purpose and practice. In this chapter we introduce two overarching concepts of alignment that recur throughout this book: ‘strategic alignment’ and ‘psychological engagement’. The design, implementation and maintenance of effective performance and reward management systems requires simultaneous, systematic and constant attention to both of these dimensions of alignment.
‘Strategic alignment’ refers to the plans, processes and actions involved in establishing and maintaining an alignment between an organisation’s overarching purpose or intent and how it manages employee performance and reward, as well as all other aspects of people management.
− ESG–Agency scholarship highlights the fragmented, expanding, and complex forms of authority that prescribe, steer, and govern behaviour on environmental issues. − Agency scholarship on earth system governance covers interdisciplinary debates in four broad areas: the types of agents, the ways authority is exercised, the nature of agents’ influence, and the varieties of governance structures or architectures within which agents act.− Even with increasing scholarship into the fragmentation of authority and multiplication of the types agents to include nonstate, transnational, and subnational actors, states continue to be the centre of agency scholarship. Future research is needed on agency theory and the theoretical nature of relationships between actors and within differing geographic, economic, and political contexts.
In this chapter, we examine employee share ownership (ESO) as an example of a collective long-term incentive. An employee share plan is any type of plan that allows some or all employees to acquire shares in the organisation that employs them (Klein 1987). We begin with an overview of the nature and extent of employee share ownership in Western countries. We investigate the theoretical rationale for employee share ownership before examining the empirical research on impact of share plans on organisational performance and employee attitudes and behaviours. Finally, we consider the relationship between employee share ownership and other HR practices, with a particular focus on other forms of performance-related pay.
− Agency is one of five core analytical problems in the Earth System Governance (ESG) Project’s research framework, which offers a unique approach to the study of environmental governance. − Agency in Earth System Governance draws lessons from ESG–Agency research through a systematic review of 322 peer-reviewed journal articles published between 2008 and 2016 and contained in the ESG–Agency Harvesting Database.− ESG–Agency research draws on diverse disciplinary perspectives with distinct clusters of scholars rooted in the fields of global environmental politics, policy studies, and socio-ecological systems. − Collectively, the chapters in Agency in Earth System Governance provide an accessible synthesis of some of the field’s major questions and debates and a state-of-the-art understanding of how diverse actors engage with and exercise authority in environmental governance.
− ESG-Agency scholarship on accountability is linked to legitimacy and agency theories and to research on architecture and power. − ESG-Agency scholars often consider accountability as an isolated, static and normative property, with relatively little critical reflection on its broader, evolving role in earth system governance. − Greater theoretical development is needed on how accountability operates between extremes of governance level (individual to international) and how this relates to international environmental governance initiatives.
This is a book about two of the core activities integral in the field of human resource management: managing employee performance and managing how employees are rewarded. As we shall see throughout the book, there is a close and complex inter-dependence between these two activities; so much so that it makes little sense to consider them in isolation from each other. Equally, while the book’s central concerns are with performance and reward practices and processes, attention is also paid throughout to recognising and analysing the interconnectedness of these and other aspects of human resource management. Performance management systems provide inputs into other HR functions such as training and employee development, as well as evaluating HR decisions such as recruitment and selection.
In this final chapter, we explore emerging trends – the new horizons – in business, technology and society with a particular focus on how these developments are influencing ideas, practice, employee experience and academic research in the field of performance and reward management. We begin with emerging trends and practices that have already begun to impact the design of performance and reward management systems and academic research in the field. We focus on three interconnected global trends that have already started to change performance and reward management practice; an impact that is very likely to increase in the years ahead. The first of these trends is the technological revolution associated with ‘Industry 4.0’; the second is the economic disruption and employment uncertainty associated with what has come to be called the ‘gig economy’; and the third is the social transformation flowing from generational change around the world.
Sometimes employee performance will be below that established or expected by the organisation in the first stages of the performance management process. In this chapter we examine how to diagnose the causes of underperformance. Having identified the primary causes of performance deficits, we then investigate the mechanism through which an employee is given feedback about their performance (the formal performance ‘review’). We focus on the provision of negative performance feedback: why it is problematic for supervisors and employees as well as tactics for the effective delivery of negative feedback. The chapter concludes with a discussion of performance development strategies and practices. We examine mentoring and coaching and their impact on employees and organisations.