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To investigate the association between the intake of selected food groups and beverages and serum uric acid (UA).
Cross-sectional study using the baseline data (2008–2010) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Food intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire with 114 items. Linear and logistic regressions investigated the associations between the daily intake of each food group (servings/d) and UA (mg/dl) and hyperuricemia (UA ≥ 6·8 mg/dl), respectively. All the analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, energy intake and all food groups.
Teaching and research institutions from six Brazilians states.
The participants were 14 320 active and retired civil servants, aged 35–74 years.
Higher intake of dairy products was associated with lower serum UA levels in both sexes, with a statistical dose-response gradient. High meat intake was associated with high UA only in women, and high intake of organ meats, in men. Intake of fish and fruits, vegetables and legumes were not associated with serum UA. In men, moderate and high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer and spirits, but not wine, increased UA. In women, only high intake of alcoholic beverages, specifically beer, was associated with increased serum UA. Similar associations were seen for hyperuricemia.
Results suggest a potential beneficial role of dairy products consumption on UA levels. The association between alcohol intake and UA differed according to type of beverage and between sexes. Results reinforce the need to consider the whole diet in the analysis and to conduct sex stratified analysis.
The shallow-ice microstructure at Dome Concordia, Antarctica, has been studied between 100 m and 580 m. An original digital-image-processing technique has been specially developed to extract ice microstructure (grain boundaries) from thin sections prepared during the two first scientific EPICA field seasons (1997/98 and 1998/99). Using this, not only the mean crystal size, but also crystal-size distributions and shape anisotropy were determined. The mean crystal-size profile as well as crystal-size distributions reveal normal grain growth up to 430 m. Between 430 m and 500 m, a marked decrease of crystal size is observed and compared with a similar trend obtained in the "old" Dome C ice core formerly associated with the Holocene/Last Glacial transition (Duval and Lorius, 1980). This seems to indicate a slightly lower accumulation rate (by <10%) at Dome C. The shapes of the crystal-size distributions, though very similar, do evolve with depth and seem to be sensitive to climatic changes. An increasing flattening of crystal shape is observed with depth. This allowed estimation of the vertical strain rate in the shallow part of the ice sheet.
We present a detailed analysis of the microstructure in the shallow part (100–580m) of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) ice core at Dome Concordia. In the Holocene ice, the average grain-size increases with depth. This is the normal grain-growth process driven by a reduction of the total grain-boundary energy. Deeper, associated with the Holocene–Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) climatic transition, a sharp decrease of the average grain-size is observed. to explain modifications to the microstructure with climatic change, we discuss the role of soluble and insoluble (microparticles) impurities in the grain-growth process of Antarctic ice, coupled with an analysis of the pinning of grain boundaries by microparticles. Our data indicate that high soluble impurity content does not necessarily imply a slowing-down of grain-growth kinetics, whereas the pinning of grain boundaries by dust particles located along the boundaries does explain modifications to the microstructure (small grain-sizes; change in grain-size distributions, etc.) observed in volcanic ash layers or dusty LGM ice.Moreover, classical mean-field models of grain-boundary pinning are in good quantitative agreement with the evolution of grain-size along the EPICA ice core. This suggests a major role for dust in the modification of shallow polar ice microstructure.
A digital image-processing approach is proposed which allows the extraction of two-dimensional polycrystalline ice microstructure (grain boundaries) from thin sections observed between cross-polarisers. It is based on image segmentation of colour images. The method is applied to the preliminary analysis of the shallow ( Holocene) ice of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) ice core at Dome Concordia. Structural parameters, such as the mean cross-sectional area, shape anisotropy and grain morphology, are obtained. The interest and limitations of this automatic procedure are discussed.
Approximately half of the variation in wellbeing measures overlaps with variation in personality traits. Studies of non-human primate pedigrees and human twins suggest that this is due to common genetic influences. We tested whether personality polygenic scores for the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) domains and for item response theory (IRT) derived extraversion and neuroticism scores predict variance in wellbeing measures. Polygenic scores were based on published genome-wide association (GWA) results in over 17,000 individuals for the NEO-FFI and in over 63,000 for the IRT extraversion and neuroticism traits. The NEO-FFI polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction in 7 cohorts, positive affect in 12 cohorts, and general wellbeing in 1 cohort (maximal N = 46,508). Meta-analysis of these results showed no significant association between NEO-FFI personality polygenic scores and the wellbeing measures. IRT extraversion and neuroticism polygenic scores were used to predict life satisfaction and positive affect in almost 37,000 individuals from UK Biobank. Significant positive associations (effect sizes <0.05%) were observed between the extraversion polygenic score and wellbeing measures, and a negative association was observed between the polygenic neuroticism score and life satisfaction. Furthermore, using GWA data, genetic correlations of -0.49 and -0.55 were estimated between neuroticism with life satisfaction and positive affect, respectively. The moderate genetic correlation between neuroticism and wellbeing is in line with twin research showing that genetic influences on wellbeing are also shared with other independent personality domains.
COROT is a high precision wide field photometry experiment from space, funded in the framework of the CNES “Petites Missions” program (the PI is A. Baglin). It will observe approximately 30000 objects with mV between 4.5 and 15.5 over long observational periods (up to 150 d), with a time sampling between 1 s and 16 min, a precision of the order of 10−4 per measurement. The scientific objectives are stellar seismology and the search for telluric planets. The instrument and the core program have already been presented in several places. We here focus on a description of the characteristics of the data to be obtained with COROT. The large amount of high quality data collected by COROT will constitute rich material for several research programs beyond the core program as already defined (http://www.astrsp-mrs.fr/www/corot.html). A call for proposal of additional programs will be made during Northern Spring 2000.
A micro (∼1 cm3) dynamic heat engine, capable of producing electrical power from lowgrade heat sources, utilizes a micro-machined diaphragm with a piezoelectric element as a The electromechanical coupling of a piezoelectric diaphragm under large initial stresses and/or large deflections – in the membrane limit – is described here. A simple model is derived for electromechanical transduction of a pressurized piezoelectric membrane and an experiment is described to measure it. Electromechanical coupling initially increases as the square of the center-point deflection as the residual stress is overcome. In the limit of large pressures, the electromechanical coupling approaches a limit that is predicted by the model.
The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of approximately 55 high-molecular weight sugar residues composed basically of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and galacturonic acid. We show how this natural product was characterized for its use as a flocculating agent. Our results show the mucilage efficiency for reducing arsenic and particulates from drinking water as determined by light scattering, Atomic Absorption and Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Flocculation studies proved the mucilage to be a much faster flocculating agent when compared to Al2(SO4)3 with the efficiency increasing with mucilage concentration. Jar tests revealed that lower concentrations of mucilage provided the optimal effectiveness for supernatant clarity, an important factor in determining the potability of water. Initial filter results with the mucilage embedded in a silica matrix prove the feasibility of applying this technology as a method for heavy metal removal. This project provides fundamental, quantitative insights into the necessary and minimum requirements for natural flocculating agents that are innovative, environmentally benign, and cost-effective.
In 2007, Clostridium difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 027 emerged in Germany. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to identify specific risk factors for infection with this strain. Logistic regression analysis involving 15 case patients and 31 control patients revealed that exposure to fluoroquinolones (matched odds ratio, 36.2; P < .01) or cephalosporins (matched odds ratio, 19.1; P < .01) was independently related to C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 infection.
At the end of 2002, a new, more virulent strain of Clostridium difficile, designated BI/NAP1, was the cause of a massive outbreak of infection in the province of Quebec. This particular strain was associated with a dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality among affected patients in 2003–2004. We tested and implemented a multipronged infection control approach to curtail the rate of C. difficile infection (CDI).
Five-year observational study.
A 554-bed, acute care tertiary hospital, the largest single medical center in Quebec, Canada.
To curtail the magnitude of the outbreak, we implemented a global strategy consisting of rapid C. difficile testing for all hospitalized patients who had at least 1 occurrence of liquid stool, the rapid isolation of patients infected with C. difficile in a dedicated ward with a specially trained housekeeping team, a global hand hygiene program, and the hiring of infection control practitioners. Antibiotic consumption at the institutional level was also monitored during the 5-year surveillance period. Cases of hospital-acquired CDI per 1,000 admissions were continuously monitored on a monthly basis during the entire surveillance period.
The highest recorded CDI rate was 42 cases per 1,000 admissions in January 2004. Once additional infection control resources were put in place, the rate descreased significantly during the period from April 2005 to March 2007. During the 2003–2004 period, there were 762 cases of CDI (mean annual rate, 37.28 cases per 1,000 admissions) recorded in our study, compared with 292 cases of CDI (14.48 cases per 1,000 admissions) during the 2006–2007 period (OR, 0.379 [95% CI, 0.331–0.435]; P < .001 ), a 61% reduction. In March 2007, the equivalent of 4 full-time equivalent infection control practitioners were in place, which gave a ratio of 0.96 infection control practitioners per 133 beds in use, compared with the ratio of 0.24 infection control practitioners per 133 beds in use in 2003, and the total number of hours dedicated to cleaning and housekeeping increased by 26.2%. The total amount of antibiotics used in the hospital did not vary significantly from 2002 to 2007, although there were changes in the classes antibiotic used.
The implementation of a multipronged intervention strategy to control the outbreak of CDI significantly improved the overall situation at the hospital and underlined the importance of investing in stringent infection control practices.
A 24-question survey on varicella-zoster screening programs and control measures for varicella-zoster infections was sent to 170 Canadian healthcare facilities. The results indicated that 60% of Canadian healthcare facilities have well-established preemployment varicella-zoster screening programs for healthcare workers. Overall, 30% of healthcare facilities impose work restrictions for susceptible healthcare workers, 49% use negative-pressure rooms for varicella-zoster management, and 28% have a policy to discharge susceptible exposed patients. Large variations exist among Canadian healthcare facilities in their varicella-zoster infection control policies.
Cardiopulmonary bypass in neonates is markedly different from the procedure used in children above 10 kg and in adults. There are two major reasons for this—first, the mismatch between the volume of the heart-lung machine circuit and that of the blood in the patient and second, the immaturity of tissues in the first three months of life.
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