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Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
From 1977 to 1999, thousands of accurate radial velocities in both hemispheres were made on a large variety of programmes with the two CORAVEL scanners. The data base of ~350000 individual observations will now be made available to complement the Gaia data.
The IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP) was created by the Executive Council as a Working Group of Division III. This decision took place in June 1999, that is only 7 years after the discovery of planets around the pulsar PSR B1257+12 and 4 years after the discovery of 51 Peg b. This working group was renewed for 3 years at the General Assembly in 2003 in Sydney, Australia. It was chaired by Alan Boss from Carnegie Institution of Washington. The WGESP members were Paul Butler, William Hubbard, Philip Ianna, Martin Kürster, Jack Lissauer, Michel Mayor, Karen Meech, Francois Mignard, Alan Penny, Andreas Quirrenbach, Jill Tarter, and Alfred Vidal-Madjar.
Commission 53 was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly (GA) of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (WGESP), which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding President of Commission 53 was Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The current President is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WGESP. The current members of the Commission 53 (C53) Organizing Committee (OC) began their service in August 2009 at the conclusion of the Rio de Janeiro IAU GA.
Theoretical studies suggest that C/O and Mg/Si are the most important elemental ratios in determining the mineralogy of terrestrial planets. The C/O ratio controls the distribution of Si among carbide and oxide species, while Mg/Si gives information about the silicate mineralogy. We find mineralogical ratios quite different from those of the Sun, showing that there is a wide variety of planetary systems which are not similar to Solar System. Many of planetary host stars present a Mg/Si value lower than 1, so their planets will have a high Si content to form species such as MgSiO3. This type of composition can have important implications for planetary processes like plate tectonics, atmospheric composition or volcanism. Moreover, the information given by these ratios can guide us in the search of stars more probable to form terrestrial planets.
If it is commonly agreed that the presence of a (moderately) close stellar companion affects the formation and the dynamical evolution of giant planets, the frequency of giant planets residing in binary systems separated by less than 100 AU is unknown. To address this issue, we have conducted with VLT/NACO a systematic adaptive optics search for moderately close stellar companions to 130 nearby solar-type stars. According to the data from Doppler surveys, half of our targets host at least one planetary companion, while the other half show no evidence for short-period giant planets. We present here the final results of our survey, which include a new series of second-epoch measurements to test for common proper motion. The new observations confirm the physical association of two companion candidates and prove the unbound status of many others. These results strengthen our former conclusion that circumstellar giant planets are slightly less frequent in binaries with mean semimajor axes between 35 and 100 AU than in wider systems or around single stars.
In order to understand general planet characteristics and constrain formation models it is necessary to scan over the widest possible parameter range of discovered systems. Due to detection biases, the domain of very-low mass planets had remained poorly explored. Only with improving measurement precision it has been possible to enter in the sub-Neptune mass range. The HARPS planet search program has been particularly efficient in detecting such ice giants and super earths. The present talk will summarize the obtained results and the characteristics of the low-mass population of exoplanets.
The meeting was opened by Ted Bowell, president, at 11 am. The 2006 Division III meetings were reviewed by Guy Consolmagno, secretary; as the minutes of those meetings have already been published, they were assumed to be approved.
Commission 53 met in August 12, 2009. Outgoing President Michel Mayor chaired the meeting, and there were several dozen members present, including incoming President Alan Boss, incoming Vice President Alain Lecavelier des Etangs. Commission 53 (C53) was founded at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU. After a period of 6 years, C53 will come up for renewal at the 2012 IAU General Assembly in Beijing, China. For the moment, more than 150 IAU members have asked to be members of C53 and few dozen non-IAU members having asked to be informed of the commission activity.
Commission 53 on Extrasolar Planets was created at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, in recognition of the outburst of astronomical progress in the field of extrasolar planet discovery, characterization, and theoretical work that has occurred since the discovery of the pulsar planets in 1992 and the discovery of the first planet in orbit around a solar-type star in 1995. Commission 53 is the logical successor to the IAU Working Group on Extrasolar Planets WG-ESP, which ended its six years of existence in August 2006. The founding president of Commission 53 is Michael Mayor, in honor of his seminal contributions to this new field of astronomy. The vice-president is Alan Boss, the former chair of the WG-ESP, and the members of the Commission 53 Organizing Committee are the other former members of the WG-ESP.
The Doppler technique has continuously improved its precision during the past two decades, attaining the level of 1 ms−1. The increasing precision opened the way to the discovery of the first extrasolar planet, and later, to the exploration of a large range of orbital parameters of extrasolar planets. This ability to detect and characterize in great detail companions down to Neptune-mass planets has provided many new and unique inputs for the understanding of planet formation and evolution. In addition, the success of the Doppler technique introduced a great dynamic in the whole domain, allowing the exploration of new possibilities.
Nowadays, the Doppler technique is no longer the only means to discover extrasolar planets. The performance of new instruments, like the High Accuracy Radial-velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS), has shown that the potential of the Doppler technique has not been exhausted; Earth-mass planets are now within reach. In the future, radial velocities will also play a fundamental role in the follow-up and characterization of planets discovered by means of other techniques—for transit candidates, in particular. We think, therefore, that the follow-up of candidates provided by, e.g., the COnvection, ROtation and planetary Transits (COROT) and Kepler space telescopes, will be of primary importance.
Since the first discovery of an extrasolar planet around a Solar-type star ten years ago (Mayor and Queloz, 1995), research in this field has been very productive and has led to the detection of more than 140 exoplanets. The vast majority of these discoveries has been made with the radial-velocity (RV) technique, i.e. the precise measurement of the RV wobble that a planet induces in its parent star due to its orbital movement. A major effort to improve the accuracy of the RV measurements has been undertaken by several groups, since this is absolutely necessary to detect the RV signatures of giant planets, in the range 1–100 ms−1. Two main techniques were developed: one using a ThAr calibration simultaneously with each observation (Baranne et al., 1996) to track instrumental drifts, and one using an iodine absorption cell, superimposing a reference spectrum on the stellar spectrum (Butler et al., 1996). Both techniques have been able to deliver RV precision at the level of ∼3 ms−1, opening the way to the discovery of many planetary systems.
Over the past decade, the exoplanet group at Geneva Observatory has been operating two high-resolution spectrographs able to achieve high RV precision, namely the ELODIE instrument mounted on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France), and the CORALIE instrument installed on the Swiss 1.2 m telescope at La Silla Observatory (Chile). Both ELODIE and CORALIE are high-resolution (R = 50 000), fiber-fed echelle spectrographs.
The Working Group on Extrasolar Planets (hereafter the WGESP) was created at a meeting of the IAU Executive Council in 1999 as a Working Group of IAU Division III and was renewed for three more years at the IAU General Assembly in 2003. The charge of the WGESP is to act as a focal point for international research on extrasolar planets. The membership of the WGESP has remained unchanged for the last three years.
The transit of the planet orbiting HD209458 has been observed using VLT/UVES, in search for faint signatures of an extended envelope of gas possibly surrounding the planet, called exosphere. Preliminary results are shown and described. They show no evidence so far of exospheric signatures.
Radial velocity surveys have revealed up to now about 115 extra-solar planets, among which a few multi-planetary systems. The discovered planets present a wide variety of orbital elements and masses, which are raising many problems and questions regarding the processes involved in their formation. The statistical analysis of the distributions of orbital elements, planetary masses, and relations between these, is however already giving some strong constraints on the formation of the planetary systems. Furthermore, the study of the planet host stars has revealed the crucial role of the stellar metallicity on the giant planet formation. In this paper we will review the current status of the research on this subject.
We present the spectroscopy results of a new set of planetary host stars discovered in the context of the Geneva extra-solar planet search programme. The analysis was based on high S/N spectra obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph at the 1.2-m Euler Swiss Telescope (at La Silla, ESO). We revisit the metallicity distribution of stars with planets. The present sample, largely enriched by the inclusion of the most recent discoveries, strongly suggests that stars with planets are anomalously metal rich, but that the source of the metallicity excess is most probably “primordial”.
Think of a scene rare on home-grown European TV, but common in the USA, which abounds with images of games of skill. Tenpin bowling is a highly refined art to those who are experts. In this sport, there's science in every step. From the calculation of the trajectory to the study of the resistance of the lanes, which are not uniformly rough. You can empathise with the fact that many years of skill are required to add the correct spin to the ball in order to attain, at the end of the lane, just the right curve which lets it hit the pins just slightly to the side in order that they fall like dominoes.
For beginners, the feat is infinitely more difficult. Either the ball, clearly wanting to be uncooperative, rushes off into the gulley, or else in spite of a nice, straight and apparently effective trajectory, it only removes the middle pins, leaving two separate groups of survivors, thereby removing all hope of cleaning out the set on the second throw.
So, frustration is often the lot of the novice, who is left with no option other than to persist in the hope that maybe one day. … Luckily, novices can count on an irregular ally: chance. Nothing seems to distinguish one bowl from the previous ones, yet miraculously the ball starts out in the lane, glides smoothly along before arriving at the rough bit, which it rapidly grasps, and perfectly curves its trajectory in just the way needed to leave no pin standing.