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To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants’ confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy).
Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity of seven strains of Geotrichum candidum, a ripening starter, were studied and compared according to their macroscopic morphotypes. It has been shown that the thallus forming units (TFU)×ml−1/OD600nm ratio as a function of time is an interesting parameter to follow G. candidum sporulation through the growth behaviour. Microscopic conformation, growth behaviour and freezing sensitivity are clearly strain specific and mostly related to their corresponding morphotypes “yeast”, “mould” or “intermediate”. The two “mould” strains that sporulate weakly (UCMA103, UCMA499) showed a low survival rate to freezing stress whereas the “yeast” strains expressed a significant resistance owing to the arthrospore abundance. Interestingly, one strain (UCMA96) which appeared on solid medium in accord with the “mould” morphotype respond similarly to freezing stress.
This study investigates three principal aspects of semantic memory processing in Alzheimer's disease: word finding, knowledge of the specific and generic attributes of concepts. Semantic memory is assessed by a range of verbal and visual tasks differentiated according to their level of complexity. Our hypothesis is that the processing of these types of information is modulated by the degree of effortful processing required by the tasks. The AD patients show more important difficulties on the tasks of high level of complexity. Nevertheless, although their performances improve when the level of complexity decreases, they significantly remain lower than those of the normal older subjects. These results are discussed with regard to the models of semantic memory, with particular reference to the debate in terms of a deficit of access or storage of this system in Alzheimer disease.
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