The effect of acidification method (microbiological with or without renneting, HCl addition) on mass transfer, fouling structure and the rheology of the retentate was studied in the ultrafiltration of skim milk coagula using a mineral microfiltration membrane. The increase in fouling with time appeared to determine permeate flow rates, which were higher in biological coagula, and the protein retention rates which were higher in chemical coagula. Fouling was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The rheological study showed that at the same total solids, biological coagula were more viscous than chemical coagula. The initial coagula (total solids 97 g/kg) all displayed pseudoplastic behaviour at low shear velocities and Newtonian behaviour at high velocities. Ultrafiltration of fat-enriched milk coagulum to a dry weight corresponding to a soft cheese (total solids 334 g/kg; fat in total solids 60%) gave satisfactory permeate flow rates and protein retention rates. Performance was related to the composition of the product, the hydrodynamic parameters used and the resulting fouling. The rheological study showed that the initial coagulum behaved as a pseudoplastic body at low shear rate and for higher velocities as a Newtonian liquid. The concentrated retenate behaved as an ideal viscoplastic body (Bingham body).