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Constitutional pluralism is a theory for the post-sovereign European state. This only makes sense historically, emerging out of postwar European reconstruction through the repression of popular sovereignty and restraining of democracy, including through the project of European integration. It became unsettled at Maastricht and evolved from a series of irritants into a full-blown crisis in the recent decade, with sovereignty claims returning both from the bottom-up and the top-down, to the extent that we can legitimately ask whether we are now moving ‘beyond the post-sovereign state’? Constitutional pluralist literature fails to capture this in that evades material issues of democracy and political economy.
In the period spanning nearly a decade from the beginning of the financial crisis to the present, the constitutional state and state system in Europe has been affected by a series of challenges to its authority and legitimacy. With regard to the European Union, these challenges are fundamental in that they go to the very existence of the project and to the values it professes to be founded on. They seem increasingly interconnected to the EU and the trajectory of integration rather than merely external to it. For the moment, the EU remains relatively resilient; outside of the UK, appetite for ending the experiment mostly inhabits the political fringes, although even in core countries, anti-European pressures are mounting and Eurosceptic parties are on the ascendency. What is clear is that the challenges to the current system go as much to the legitimacy of domestic regimes and their political authority as to the EU itself, not least from the fragmentary pressures on the state from below in the context of subnational claims to autonomy. In short, the crisis of authority is not merely of the EU but of the regional state system and the governing order in Europe.
This innovative, introductory text is authored by key subject leaders in clinical neuroendocrinology with decades of research and teaching experience. Addressing the need for a concise description of human neuroendocrine systems, this important review of various significant basic science advances is relevant for all levels of experience. An indispensable resource for a variety of learners, this book will also enable biomedical science graduate students to extend their knowledge using its valuable clinical context. Beautifully illustrated, this text integrates basic scientific principles with clinical cases and includes several illustrated imaging studies, and in-depth discussions of basic principles and their interpretations. Extensive reference lists of clinical papers, teaching resources and a selection of review questions are included with each chapter, emphasizing the real-life importance of basic neuroendocrine principles in human health and disease. Clinical reviews are included to provide convenient links to more specialized texts, ensuring a successful springboard for learners worldwide.