In the course of a systematic field study, anisotropic alkali and alkaline earth vanadates have been accessed through a straightforward, one-step hydrothermal process. They are formed quantitatively from V2O5 and alkali- or alkaline earth halide solutions after a few days of autoclave treatment in the temperature range between 100 and 220 °C. The presence of ionic additives leads to an interplay between the formation of isotropic crystalline phases and the production of fibrous oxide materials, such as a novel magnesium vanadate. The influence of the hydrothermal parameters and of the alkali/alkaline earth halides on the emerging phases and morphologies has been investigated in the course of a systematic study. The results are compared with other vanadate- and transition metal oxide-based hydrothermal systems, and the emerging trends are discussed with respect to the development of predictive synthetic concepts for nanostructured vanadium oxides.